包容性金融

Inclusive finance focuses on expanding access of poor and vulnerable populations, micro- and small-enterprises, and those otherwise excluded to affordable and responsible financial products and services. This encompasses a wide range of financial services including savings, credit, insurance, remittances, and payments. These services should be provided by a variety of sound and sustainable institutions. Inclusive finance carries with it the responsibility for all actors in the value chain - investors, retail financial service providers and other relevant stakeholders - to understand, acknowledge and act in accordance with the interests of the ultimate client. Clients are typically low-income and constrained by asymmetries in financial knowledge, power and influence.

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Enabling Policy and Regulation: Leaving No One Behind in the Digital Era Paper 2019

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This resource appears in: ICT applications, Rural Financial Services: General, 包容性金融

As technology and information rapidly force the evolution of global and local markets, we must act quickly to support policymakers and regulators to adapt to a swiftly advancing future full of opportunity and uncertainty.

An interconnected digital economy requires an agile, well-informed approach to risk management. For example, as new and old customers use digital channels from multiple and diverse providers, protecting customer data has become a policy focus area. Complementarily, as more people use formal financial accounts and expect their money to be accessible on demand, protecting funds will continue to be a priority issue. Rapid economic development will be driven by increasing customer trust. In a competitive environment that evolves rapidly, engendering customer trust is a constant process, and governments represent one of the few actors at the national level to which customers can look for protection from abuse and endorsement of reliable systems.

FDC and APEC Business Advisory Council Progress Report Report 2019

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This report was prepared by FDC to summarize the inclusive growth and development policy recommendations developed as part of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC's) Financial Inclusion Policy, entrusted to FDC since 2010.

The recommendations, which include specific actions APEC’s Finance Officials can take to progress them, cover a range of issues including generating impact through financial inclusion, the economic potential of women, opportunities through digital technology, driving economic growth through nano, micro and small enterprises and regional integration and cooperation. 

Savings and Retail Banking in Africa: Results from 2018 WSBI member bank survey Report 2019

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The scope of this first annual report 2018 encompasses primary data research gathered from WSBI African membership, providing a snapshot of savings and retail banking efforts to widen financial access for people in Africa. The 2018 report is a starting point to track the progress of savings and retail banking in Africa.

Publisher Scale2Save, WSBI, Mastercard Foundation
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Retail Banking, Access To Finance
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Mainstreaming Financial Inclusion through Demonstration Projects Case Study 2019

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Within Japan’s International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the Office for Gender Equality and Poverty Reduction (the Unit) has the mandate to advance financial inclusion through policy guidance and technical assistance to JICA’s operational departments responsible for development sectors such as rural development and health. In recent years, the Unit has come to realize that there is a gap between understanding the importance of financial inclusion in principle and knowing how to actually integrate it in one’s sector. With this in mind, the Unit has sought a new approach: rather than operate “from the outside,” why not embed financial inclusion within JICA through hybrid demonstration projects that show how financial inclusion contributes to development objectives and how integrated solutions actually happen?

Author Ousa Sananikone
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 4 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Poverty Reduction Strategies, integrated solutions, Rural Development
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Inclusive Finance? Headline Findings from FinAccess 2019 Paper 2019

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2019 Finaccess Household Survey is the fifth in a series of national household surveys on access and usage of financial services in Kenya. It seeks to contribute to market development by providing better information to those who will shape the future of the sector—policymakers and regulators, industry players, analysts and researchers and consumer groups. The goal of FinAccess is not simply to measure finance inclusion in Kenya, but to provide insights into how finance needs to change.

This report takes a deeper look at the findings in the FinAccess 2019 survey, pulling out key questions for consideration in the development of an inclusive financial sector that is economically relevant for the needs of Kenyans. Its aim is to encourage both policymakers and industry providers to dive deeper into the data.

Mobilising Finance for WASH: Getting the Foundation Right 2019

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Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 is: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Mobilizing finance to address the SDG 6 financing gap successfully and sustainably will require more than innovative or sophisticated financial vehicles and mechanisms. To move to scale, private and public investment hinges on core foundational issues being addressed in the water sector by service providers, governments and other enabling environment stakeholders.

This paper unpacks what is meant by the enabling environment for finance in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and presents real examples of how these bottlenecks are being overcome by innovators in the sector.

Author Lesley Pories, Catarina Fonseca & Victoria Delmon
Publisher IRC, Water.org, World Bank
Number of Pages 37 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, WASH
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Cyber Security in Financial Sector Development: Challenges and Potential Solutions for Financial Inclusion Paper 2019

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This resource appears in: ICT applications, Financial sector linkages, 包容性金融

This paper assesses the relevance of cyber security for the development of inclusive financial systems in developing countries. The growing use of digital financial services and shared service platforms has increased the financial sector’s exposure to cyber risks. Financial service providers and their customers, regulators and supervisors are challenged with the increase in cyber threats – especially in emerging and developing countries with lower capacities and less resources.

The paper shares trends, challenges and examples of governments, industry initiatives and public-private partnerships that are taking steps towards addressing capacity and resource gaps in the sector. Based on the analysis and lessons drawn from existing examples, the authors provide suggestions for further research and experimentation aimed at identifying effective approaches for improving the sector’s resilience to and preparedness for cyber incidents.

Author Silvia Baur-Yazbeck, Judith Frickenstein and David Medine
Publisher CGAP Background Documents
Number of Pages 15 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords cyber security, Financial Sector, Financial Inclusion
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Gender Self-Assessment Toolkit for Financial Service Providers Toolkit 2019

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This resource appears in: Rural Financial Services, Rural Financial Services: General, Gender, 包容性金融

UNCDF, under its ASEAN regional and country programme, has developed a toolkit composed of an institutional gender self-assessment tool (GSAT) and a standardised process with facilitator guides to support FSPs in reviewing and evaluating their existing gender approach. This includes identifying the linkages that exist among: a) their business goals and profit; b) effectively serving the women’s market and; c) promoting women’s workforce participation and leadership. The toolkit aims to enhance FSPs’ institutional policies, practices and performance towards - Increasing targeted outreach to women clients through gender-sensitive products and services; and promoting workforce gender diversity in management and leadership.

Capturing Our Impact: Harnessing Innovation for Financial Inclusion Book 2019 English (en)

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This resource appears in: Technology and outreach, 包容性金融

This e-book shows the transformative effect that technology and innovation has on the lives of the most vulnerable. The book contains impact stories, videos and photos that put faces behind the numbers and illustrate that digital innovation does not only unlock basic life-changing financial services for low-income people but also serves as an enabler for delivering clean water, solar energy, education, and more. This e-book is a product of the program Harnessing Innovation for Financial Inclusion (HiFi), the World Bank Group’s partnership aimed at scaling up financial inclusion on a sustainable basis through technology and innovation and funded with UK aid from the UK government. 

The e-book highlights cases which push the boundaries of what is possible in revolutionizing financial services through technology, particularly in the world’s most challenging markets. For example, in Ethiopia, World Bank is supporting digitization of social transfer payments for people who chronically lack adequate food through Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP). In Yemen, despite ongoing violence and severe security constraints, IFC helped Al Kuraimi Islamic Microfinance Bank (KIMB) successfully launch a mobile banking platform that allows its clients to access money when they can’t access a physical bank branch. And in Uganda, solar company Fenix partnered with CGAP to design education loan products to help its customers pay for school.

Capturing Our Impact: Harnessing Innovation for Financial Inclusion  -  English (en)

Strengthening Capacity through an Internal Financial Inclusion CoP Case Study 2019

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This resource appears in: Staff development, 包容性金融

The Agence Française de Développement (AFD) Group has a financial systems strategy and operational teams that work on financial inclusion projects. However, staff rotations and operational realities at field bureaus have revealed a need for greater expertise and awareness of financial inclusion across AFD Group, especially in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. How can an organization effectively and efficiently build internal capacity around a cross-cutting development theme? This case study examines a thriving internal community of practice that is sharing good practices in financial inclusion and strengthening operations across AFD Group.

Emerging Evidence on Financial Inclusion: Moving from Black and White to Color Paper 2019

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Research on the impact of financial services on the lives of low-income people provides valuable insights. However, these studies tend to focus on microcredit or a single financial product, such as savings or mobile money. As a result, an overly simplistic and product-focused story has emerged. Recognizing the need for a more nuanced and clearer impact narrative, this Focus Note synthesizes evidence since 2014 and highlights three overarching insights:

  1. Financial services improve resilience both by facilitating recovery from shocks and encouraging investments that are riskier but potentially more profitable in the longer term.
  2. Women’s control and ownership of financial services can improve their bargaining power in the household and enable positive outcomes, such as increasing their participation in the labor force.
  3. Emerging evidence suggests that financial inclusion can contribute to increased economic growth and reduced poverty.

Other findings demonstrate that expanding access to basic accounts alone is unlikely to result in detectable welfare benefits, while digitizing financial services shows promising effects on poverty but also introduces potential risks (e.g., weakening of social networks). Going forward, more information is needed on context and customer demographics to better understand who benefits from certain financial services and how and under what circumstances financial inclusion may not be beneficial

Fintech for the Water Sector : Advancing Financial Inclusion for More Equitable Access to Water Paper 2019

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For many low-income households in the developing world, incomes are highly variable and uncertain. High up-front costs combined with irregular incomes result in unequal access to water, sanitation, and irrigation. Households typically can, and should, cover the costs of accessing water resources, but they cannot do this without help. Financial inclusion can help households access water resources. Financial inclusion focuses on ensuring everyone has access to useful and affordable financial products and services, including transactions, payments, savings, credit, and insurance. The emerging field of financial technology (fintech) can help address barriers to financial inclusion in the water sector while potentially reducing or eliminating the need for subsidy. Fintech solutions already address some of the needs of developing-nation households—applications include payments and mobile money, pay-as-you-go (PAYG) models, insurance technology (insurtech), and virtual banks. This paper explores how fintech can support expansion of market-based solutions for water, sanitation, and irrigation, identifying several use cases where fintech is already being used to address financial inclusion and access to water. In addition to ways that fintech can help households access water supply and sanitation services, the paper also examines how fintech can help water utilities serve low-income customers more effectively and assist small-scale service providers in growing their businesses

Author Ikeda, Jonathan Kano; Liffiton, Kenneth;
Number of Pages 53 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
World
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Rural Development, water, WASH
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Handbook on Consumer Protection for Inclusive Finance Study Guide 2019

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As digital technologies transform financial inclusion, with new providers, products, and delivery channels reaching out to the financially excluded, the need increases for effective legal and regulatory frameworks to protect low-income consumers. A sound legal framework for consumer financial protection will support financial inclusion and innovation, allow new products and services to responsibly reach previously underserved consumers, and provide for empowered and capable regulators to oversee and enforce these frameworks.

The Handbook on Consumer Protection for Inclusive Finance presents updated and revised guidance for consumer financial protection regulators organized around the Smart Campaign’s Client Protection Principles (CPPs). It expands upon a previous document, the Client Protection Principles: Model Law and Commentary for Financial Consumer Protection (Model Legal Framework) to reflect updated digital credit standards from the Smart Campaign, new and emerging guidance from international organizations and collaborative working groups, and consultation with a broad range of experts regarding the unique characteristics of digital financial services (DFS), with an emphasis on digital credit.

Author Jessica Galimberti
Publisher Accion and New Perimeter, LLC., Center for Financial Inclusion
Number of Pages 96 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Inclusive Finance, Consumer Protection, enabling environment, Financial Inclusion Strategy, Policy, Regulation and Government Initiatives, Responsible Digital Finance
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European Microfinance Award 2018: Financial Inclusion Through Technology - Digital Pathways in Financial Inclusion Paper 2019

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The 2018 European Microfinance Award highlighted the role of technology in advancing financial inclusion, showing how technology-enabled services and solutions can help financial services providers such as microfinance institutions increase outreach to low-income and vulnerable segments. The 2018 Award invited applications from financial services providers (FSPs) that use technology innovations to expand outreach, broaden product offerings, improve the client experience, and increase operating efficiency, all guided by an unwavering focus on socially responsible finance.

This publication draws on the technology initiatives of the winners and semi-finalists of the 2018 Award, paving the way for how advances in technology can be adopted by financial services providers who serve the excluded.

Author Sam Mendelson, Lucia Spaggiari, Chiara Pescatori, Gabriela Erice, Gemma Cavaliere & Daniel Rozas
Publisher European Microfinance Platform (e-MFP)
Number of Pages 44 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords digital financial services
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Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability 2018

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Sub-Saharan Africa is recovering from the most severe growth slowdown in two decades. Recovery is vulnerable and is expected to remain uneven across countries. While the region’s growth in per capita gross domestic product has been positive since 2017, it will remain insufficient to significantly reduce poverty. Rising public debt burdens are fuelling debt sustainability risks, while tighter global financing conditions and weaker than expected commodity prices pose additional downside risks.

During its Africa Day in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, the European Investment Bank released  its new study: ‘Banking in Africa: Delivering on Financial Inclusion, Supporting Financial Stability’. In its fourth edition, this economic report analyses recent development in the African banking sectors, including through a survey of African banking groups, addresses structural issues and investment opportunities for the continent and proposes policy options for all stakeholders.  The report also portrays the state of bank recovery and resolution laws in Africa and maps out policy options to finance infrastructure development. Finally the study explains the type of financial support and technical assistance that the EIB can offer to financial sectors in Africa.

Financial inclusion metrics for the real world Technical Note 2018

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A recent i2ifacility blog post Good Intentionshighlighted the importance of the relationship between what you measure and theoutcomes you achieve. For financial inclusion, this is particularly truein terms of understanding the complex relationships between the real world and the access to and usage of cash-in/cash-out services. Spatial data is key to understanding which parts of the population have access to services, understanding real-world drivers of the distribution of services as well as understanding the real-worldcharacteristics that influence and drive usage of specific productsand services.

Policymakers play a key role in driving financial inclusion, not only through the setting and measuring of broad, national financialinclusion targets, but also in the setting of policies and standards
to encourage (i) the distribution of services in a way that increases access and (ii) the design of appropriate and inclusive products and services in a way that increases usage. Before examining how spatial data can be used to inform metrics and measurement frameworks, we need to explore how spatial data can enhance our understanding of access and usage.

Reserve Bank of Fiji’s Experience With Financial Inclusion and Climate Change Case Study 2018

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Financial inclusion has made significant inroads in many countries, including Fiji, where today over 80 percent of adults have access to financial products and services. Rigorous research shows that providing access to formal financial services helps the poor smooth consumption when they face unexpected setbacks. However, while green finance and sustainable finance have become established concepts, the connection between financial inclusion and climate change has not been sufficiently explored.

The purpose of this case study is to show the important link between financial inclusion and climate change and to help build a body of evidence of the actions financial regulators are taking to address the pressing issues of climate change mitigation and adaptation for those at the bottom of the pyramid. It examines the early work of the Reserve Bank of Fiji (RBF) to enact policies that will transition Fiji’s financial sector to a green economy and help the population cope with the financial losses of climate change and adapt to new livelihoods and environmental realities.

Toward Universal Financial Inclusion in China Report 2018

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China has achieved remarkable success in financial inclusion. China’s rate of account ownership – a basic metric of financial inclusion – has increased significantly in the past two decades and is now on par with that of other G-20 countries. Traditional financial service providers have dramatically increased the reach of the formal financial sector, including through the world’s largest agent banking network. China has also been an established leader in the fintech revolution, with new technology-driven providers transforming how millions of Chinese consumers make payments, borrow, save, invest, and insure themselves against risk. This report examines in detail China’s approach to financial inclusion over the past 15 years. The report benchmarks China’s progress against peer economies and analyzes key developments and factors in China’s financial inclusion experience. The report also outlines remaining challenges to achieving further advances in financial inclusion in China, and distills key lessons policymakers from other countries can learn from China’s experience. The report was written jointly by the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) and the World Bank Group.

 

Integrating Financial Capability Into Government Cash Transfer Programs Toolkit 2018

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Over the past two decades, government-to-person cash transfer programs have become common in many countries as a means of addressing chronic poverty and insecurity for low-income and poor households. However, adequate financial knowledge and skills – the key factors of financial capability – are necessary for program beneficiaries to access and use their accounts or cash transfers effectively. Integrating financial capability development into government cash transfer programs has thus emerged as a strategic policy objective around the world.

The purpose of this toolkit is to demonstrate the importance of financial capability and its benefits for social cash transfer recipients, and provide guidance on how to integrate financial education into government-led cash transfer programs. The toolkit analyzes the expected benefits from such integration, sequences a recommended roadmap of the necessary steps, and suggests a design and implementation methodology with reference to the global best practices. It provides detailed guidance on the required research, needs assessments, design aspects, pilots, evaluations, and national scale rollouts.

In addition, digital finance aspects of financial education are discussed, as cash transfers are increasingly provided digitally – directly into beneficiaries’ accounts. The annexes cover the reference instruments and templates that can be used in designing and implementing integrated financial education programs

Author Siegfried Zottel & Helen Luskin Gradstein
Publisher World Bank
Number of Pages 81 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Cash Transfer, Financial Capability, Remittances and Payments
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I-SIP Toolkit: Policy Making for an Inclusive Financial System Toolkit 2018

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As of 2018, more than 90 countries have publicly committed to promoting financial inclusion—and the number will continue to grow. Financial regulators and supervisors in these countries are discovering the value of a structured approach in helping them to implement policies and strategies on financial inclusion (I) alongside their core responsibilities to promote micro- and macroprudential stability (S) and financial integrity (I) and to protect financial consumers (P)—objectives collectively referred to as I-SIP.

This Toolkit uses lessons learned from CGAP’s extensive analysis of real-life country experiences. It helps financial regulators and supervisors to implement a structured approach for managing the complex interplay among the I-SIP objectives – the I-SIP Approach. The approach outlined in the toolkit has been used successfully in different policy-making environments and can be adapted to fit your needs.

Financial regulators and supervisors make important policy decisions and often face serious questions and problems:

  • Your institution wants to address financial inclusion, but you have other objectives that concern you: stability, integrity, and protection.
  • Your institution often makes decisions based on intuition, but you are concerned about unintended consequences.
  • It is difficult to establish a structured process in your organization that will enable you to properly evaluate or discuss a key policy issue.
  • You are facing an increasingly fast-changing and complex financial landscape and have little time to assess a proposed policy intervention.

This Toolkit is designed to be accessible and to take you through a defined process to make policy decisions and to effectively implement them. It features a brief overview of the I-SIP Approach, four things to keep in mind as you begin, and the structured process rendered in seven steps. It is complete with annexes that give you more in-depth information and links to other resources and a workbook you can use to document your ideas and progress.

High-Saving Youth in Smallholder Households: An Untapped Market Brief 2018

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Young people living in smallholder households tend to save more money than their elders and they have use mobile money at lower rates and tend to rely on informal mechanisms to set aside money (e.g., saving at home, savings and credit groups, transacting with friends and family). And yet, formal financial services providers (FSPs) are not reaching them.

This Brief uses data from CGAP’s financial diaries and national surveys with smallholder households—two highly complementary research methods—to examine the saving habits, mobile phone ownership, and use of mobile money among young people living in smallholder households. The smallholder diaries detailed the cash flows of 270 families in three markets, while the nationally representative surveys explored the agricultural and financial lives of roughly 18,000 smallholder families in six countries.

FSPs can leverage the strong savings habits of youth in smallholder families and their access to mobile phones to develop digital products that better meet their needs and aspirations. Savings could be the use case that drives adoption of mobile money and brings them into the formal financial system.

Author Jamie Anderson; Ramesh Karuppusamy; Paul Enrico Neumann; Vijendran Thangavel
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 4 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Youth Finance, Financial Inclusion
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Exploring the Spatial Data Landscape and Options for Sustainable Data Collection Technical Note 2018

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Data collection frameworks, methodologies and tools for financial inclusion

This paper explores the current landscape of spatial data for financial inclusion, with a focus on sustainable collection and management. This is a complex topic with no silver bullet and no one-size-fits-all solution. In a bid to recognize this complexity and provide a functional framework for discussion, this paper divides into three sections the issues that surround sustainable spatial data collection. 

  1. The first section examines various data collection frameworks. It looks at the strategic and high-level question of who should, or who is, driving change in the data market.
  2. Section two examines data collection methodologies. It also examines the approaches and options that have been tested and that are being implemented in various markets, and it examines their suitability in various contexts.
  3. The final section gives an overview of the tools available for collecting spatial data and their relative advantages and appropriateness for different markets.
Author David Taylor
Publisher insight to impact (i2i)
Number of Pages 23 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion; Data Collection; Spatial Data
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Fintech, Inclusive Growth and Cyber Risks: A Focus on the MENAP and CCA Regions Document 2018

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This resource appears in: ICT applications, Financial sector linkages, Risk management, 包容性金融

Financial technology (fintech) is emerging as an innovative way to achieve financial inclusion and the broader objective of inclusive growth. In addition to improving the speed, convenience, and efficiency of financial services, fintech has potential to promote financial inclusion. More specifically, it can enhance access to affordable financial services for unbanked populations and underserved small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs); reduce delays and costs in cross-border remittances; foster efficiencies and transparency in government operations, which helps reduce corruption, and facilitate social and humanitarian transfers in a manner that preserves human dignity. 
For the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan (MENAP) and Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) regions, fintech has a particularly valuable role to play as these potential benefits are aligned with the regions’ policy priorities. Both regions have countries with large unbanked populations, SMEs whose growth is constrained by limited access to finance, high youth unemployment, large remittance markets and informal transfers (Hawala), undiversified economies, vulnerabilities to terrorism, large income disparities, large displaced populations, and endemic corruption. Fintech innovations and underlying technologies can contribute to the solutions for many of these challenges.

Author Inutu Lukonga
Publisher International Monetary Fund
Number of Pages 51 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Stability & Governance, Banking Supervision and Regulation, Financial Inclusion, digital finance
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The Financial Inclusion Compass 2018: The Inaugural e-MFP Survey of Financial Inclusion Trends Report 2018

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This paper presents the findings of the inaugural e-MFP Survey of Financial Inclusion Trends. The Financial Inclusion Compass was conceived to respond to what e-MFP sees every year at European Microfinance Week – a very strong appetite for discussion about the consequences of current trends, and the possible landscape of financial inclusion 5, 10 or 15 years from now.

The survey was mixed methodology, asking for scoring of particular selected financial inclusion trends, their importance and direction of progress, and ratings of selected future areas of focus, as well as asking for qualitative responses on issues both granular and general – from the short to the long-term future.

According to survey respondents, the five most important criteria in driving increased access and usage of financial services are seen as:

  1. Client Protection.
  2. Regulatory Environment.
  3. Governance.
  4. Outreach to Low-Income Segments.
  5. Technology and New Delivery Channels.
Inclusive Finance: Looking to the Future. A Perspective from Luxembourg Paper 2018

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The publication includes the thoughts of six Inclusive Finance Network Luxembourg (InFiNe.lu) members on specific area of inclusive finance and the role played by Luxembourg. They shed light on the profile of small and medium enterprises (SME) entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa and their needs, the use of Peer-to-Peer lending to support SMEs, the challenges of cyber security in the inclusive finance sector, and the connection with impact investment.

The common thread of these articles is first and foremost to reveal the different tools, whether analytics tools or innovative financing instruments, created by Luxembourg to contribute to the development of financial inclusion.

GPFI Policy Paper on Financial Inclusion of Forcibly Displaced Persons Paper 2017

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Involving G20 and non-G20 countries, humanitarian and development organizations, private and financial sector actors, as well as NGOs and academia, this Policy Paper is the result of an ongoing stakeholder dialogue and research effort launched under the German G20 Presidency. It describes the potential of financial inclusion allowing Forcibly Displaced Persons (FDPs) to live up their (economic) potential and thereby contribute to host societies. It also summarizes common challenges related to the financial inclusion of the vulnerable and very heterogeneous target group of FDPs in different contexts and stages of displacement.

This Policy Paper calls on all stakeholders to engage in the implementation of the identified priority action areas toward enabling their financial inclusion:

  • DIALOGUE AND COOPERATION: improve coordination and collaboration through global dialogue and strategic partnerships within and among sectors.
  • DATA AND EVIDENCE: strengthen the case for financial inclusion of FDPs by closing the knowledge and evidence gaps through data generation and targeted research.
  • INCLUSIVE POLICY FRAMEWORKS: embed FDP-inclusive policies and practices in existing financial inclusion efforts, esp. as regards the regulatory environment, infrastructure and digital financial inclusion, and encourage that financial inclusion approaches are reflected in FDP-related policies and practices – while continuing to address the needs and demands of the local population and FDPs alike.
Climate Smart Financing for Rural MSMEs: Enabling Policy Frameworks Paper 2017

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The document presents a synthesis of the key lessons and implications of climate change needs and solutions for MSMEs in developing countries with an emphasis on the implications for governments and development agencies to consider. The document is enriched with many case examples of practices implemented around the world. Based on this analysis, evidence from the case studies and the modeling of climate smart MSMEs, the document elaborates policy options for G20 policy makers. These options are designed to help overcome market failures that prevent rural MSMEs’ adaptation to climate change and help enable and incentivize MSMEs to access climate smart financing. These adaptations would not only reduce MSME vulnerability but also help reduce CO2 emissions and pollution.

The paper first addresses the issues surrounding rural and agricultural MSMEs and constraints they face for finance and investment, it then assesses the gaps for climate smart MSMEs. The subsequent section describes climate smart adaptation and mitigation solutions for MSMEs. It does this by highlighting some of the current understanding of the climate financing problem as well as relevant lessons learnt from the sustainable energy financing area, followed by potential ways forward, with policy implications relating to adaptation. It then presents opportunities that can be realized from new climate smart technologies and efficiencies that can be gleaned from "green" finance and investment.

The document moves from outlining the needs, constraints and opportunities to focusing on the climate smart financial solutions for MSMEs. These financial solutions include financial tools and public-private collaboration for scale-up of climate smart investment with an emphasis on the policy implications. Policy is noted as an important driver of change and a policy assessment and options are presented with regards to how policy makers can promote financing MSME climate smart adaptation. The policy options are summarized into a Policy Toolbox with applications and examples to facilitate policy discussion.

Key policy messages highlight that climate smart adaptation and risk mitigation policies need to empower, provide an enabling environment for change, provide incentivizes to build capacity and facilitate financing and investment. Blended finance, partial guarantee schemes and insurance support may be required to promote and incentivize financial institutions to lend and for rural MSMEs to be able to borrow. Private financial institutions must play an important role in climate smart financing and public financing schemes can help "crowd in" their participation.

Author Csaky, E.; Frei-Oldenburg, A.; Hess, U. et al.
Publisher GIZ, the World Bank Group and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Number of Pages 65 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Rural Finance, climate smart financing, Financial Inclusion, Agriculture
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Vision of the Future: Financial Inclusion 2025 Paper 2017

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Global development trends indicate that the number of people living in extreme poverty is likely to continue to decline as incomes continue to rise in many parts of the world. Globally, the wellbeing of individuals seems to be improving. Yet, inequality has become a new challenge. A majority of poor people work in the informal sector. This plays a vital role in economic growth, but many of these workers do not have social protection and job security. Over the next decade several major forces will fundamentally shape most countries’ economic, social, and political conditions, including financial services for the poor.

To get a good sense of what the future may hold for poor people and financial inclusion, CGAP organized a scenario thinking exercise that aimed to examine plausible, divergent futures. In four global workshops between October 2016 and February 2017, CGAP brought together more than 100 thought leaders, innovators, development actors, and academics to ponder the question: “In what ways will financial services influence inequality and economic participation for poor people by 2025?”

The goal was to generate possible future scenarios - not predictions - for financial inclusion, taking into account driving forces such as digital technologies, globalization, migration, and the changing world of work. This Focus Note summarizes the insights gained through this exercise. It also identifies the main opportunities to ensure financial services better serve the needs of poor people in a rapidly evolving context for organizations working to advance financial inclusion.

Microfinance and Economic Development Paper 2017

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Microfinance is generally seen as a way to fix credit markets and unleash the productive capacities of poor people who are dependent on self-employment. The microfinance sector has grown quickly since the 1990s, paving the way for other forms of social enterprise and social investment. But recent evidence shows only modest average impacts on customers, generating a backlash against microfinance. This paper reconsiders the claims about microfinance, highlighting the diversity in evidence on impacts and the important (but limited) role of subsidies. The paper concludes by describing an evolution of thinking: from microfinance as narrowly construed entrepreneurial finance toward microfinance as broadly construed household finance. In this vision, microfinance yields benefits by providing liquidity for a wide range of needs rather than solely by boosting business income.

Author Robert Cull; Jonathan Morduch
Publisher World Bank Group
Number of Pages 45 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Microfinance, Financial Inclusion, Poverty, Implicit Subsidy, Economic Development
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Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth: a review of recent empirical evidence Paper 2017 English (en)

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There is growing evidence that appropriate financial services have substantial benefits for consumers, especially women and poor adults. This paper provides an overview of financial inclusion around the world and reviews the recent empirical evidence on how the use of financial products—such as payments services, savings accounts, loans, and insurance— can contribute to inclusive growth and economic development. This paper also discusses some of the challenges to achieving greater financial inclusion and directions for future research.

Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth: a review of recent empirical evidence  -  English (en)

Author A. Demirguc-Kunt, L. Klapper, D. Singer
Publisher The World Bank
Washington, D.C.
Number of Pages 27 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, finance, Gender, Access To Finance
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Global Financial Development Report 2017 / 2018: Bankers without Borders Report 2017

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Global Financial Development Report 2017/2018: Bankers without Borders brings to bear new evidence on the benefits and costs of international banking. Countries that are open to international banking can benefit from global flows of funds, knowledge, and opportunity, but the regulatory challenges are complex and, at times, daunting.

Main Messages

  • Following a decade of increased globalization, international banking suffered a setback after the global financial crisis.
  • Remaining open is important for countries to continue to benefit from global flows of funds, knowledge, and opportunity.
  • There is an important role for policy in maximizing the benefits and minimizing the costs of international banking.
  • Encouraging the right type of foreign bank presence or forms of capital flows without causing distortions is challenging.
  • Regulation and supervision of international banking is complex and should involve extensive cross-border coordination.
Financial inclusion. Transforming lives Report 2017

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Each year, the Secretary-General’s Special Advocate for Inclusive Finance—Queen Máxima of the Netherlands—publishes a report that looks at what financial inclusion has achieved and where it is going.

The report discusses the contribution SMEs have on the economy - half of total employment and a third of the GDP. However, their opportunity for growth is severely limited due to inequities in credit and financing. Suggestions include having a national strategy for financial inclusion and building stronger credit reporting and reforms.

This year's report lays out three priorities for action that could accelerate our momentum: ensuring development impact, promoting supportive policies for digital financial inclusion, and reaching neglected populations such as farmers, women, and small businesspeople.

 

 

Author Queen Máxima of the Netherlands
Publisher UNSGSA
Number of Pages 32 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, digital finance, Mobile Banking
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Rural and Agribusiness Finance: improving the lives of the rural poor Document 2017

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Financial inclusion refers to a state where individuals, including low-income people, and companies, including the smallest ones, have access to and make use of a full range of formal quality financial services (payments, transfers, savings, credit, and insurance) offered in a responsible and sustainable way by a variety of providers operating in a suitable legal and regulatory environment.

The financial inclusion cause has been embraced globally by central banks and international standard-setting bodies for its impact on any country’s economy: supporting economic growth through the development of the financial sector, improving the financial sector’s stability, or decreasing Anti-Money Laundering/Combating the Financing of Terrorism risks through higher formalization of the economy, are a few of the many tangible virtues of high financial inclusion rates. Organizations such as the G20, the United Nations, and the World Bank have thus committed to advance financial inclusion globally.

In the race toward full financial inclusion, the Arab world lags behind other regions. Low levels of financial inclusion in the region are the result of unserved demand.  Detailed and accurate data are necessary to identify priorities and measure progress. Data will reflect progress only when actual change happens in the Arab markets. Public policies aiming at fostering financial inclusion and appropriate legal frameworks play a key role, and central banks are well-positioned to drive such policies. Central banks usually have both the mandate and the skill set that allow them to champion and coordinate the process toward effective national financial inclusion strategies, though they are not always in charge of all aspects related to financial inclusion.

Taking Stock: Recent Trends in International Funding for Financial Inclusion Brief 2016 English (en)

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This Brief is based on data from the 2016 CGAP Cross-Border Funder Survey conducted in partnership with MIX. CGAP collected data from 54 international funders, whose commitments made up 74% of global estimated funding for financial inclusion.

Taking Stock: Recent Trends in International Funding for Financial Inclusion  -  English (en)

Baromètre de la microfinance 2016 2016 Spanish (es)

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Depuis 2010, le Baromètre de la Microfinance présente les principales ten­dances et permet de donner une visibilité aux initiatives de la microfinance à fort impact social. Publication phare de Convergences s’inscrivant dans son domaine d’expertise historique, le Baromètre de la microfinance dévoile tous les ans les chiffres inédits du secteur.

Chaque année, plusieurs acteurs majeurs font confiance à Convergences et lui fournissent leurs données en exclusivité, faisant du Baromètre de la Microfinance une véritable référence. En partenariat avec la Fédération Nationale des Caisses d’épargne, La Fondation MasterCard, Le Groupe Caisse des Dépôts, la Plateforme européenne de la microfinance et Oikocredit, le Baromètre délivre chaque année les données inédite du Mix Market, de la Social Performance Taskforce et du groupe Caisse des Dépôts sur la microfinance en France, en Europe et dans le monde.

Le lancement de l’édi­tion 2016 a eu lieu dans les locaux de la Fédération nationale des Caisses d’Epargne (FNCE), à Paris, en présence des auteurs et des experts du sec­teur. L’édition 2016 propose des chiffres actualisés de la micro­finance au niveau mondial et en France, analyse les principales tendances du secteur et étudie les nouvelles opportunités de ce secteur dans les pays en développement comme dans les pays développés. Avec un dossier spécial « Microfinance et Objectifs de développement durable », l’édition 2016 montre comment la microfinance contribue à l’atteinte des ODD.

Lien vers la publication  -  Spanish (es)

Author Convergences
Publisher Convergences
Number of Pages 12
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Microfinance, Performance sociale, Finance agricole, Financement de l'agriculture, Microfinance verte, Technologie
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The Status of Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education in India Paper 2016 English (en)

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This paper describes the structure of banking and microfinance institutions in India relevant to the developing model of financial inclusion, as well as relevant regulatory structure and modes of delivery. It explains the current state of financial inclusion, as well as regulatory changes necessary to make the new architecture for inclusion viable, including a critique of some of the recommendations of the Mor Committee on Comprehensive Financial Services for Small Businesses and Low-Income Households. 

The paper then reviews modes of delivery and the regulatory structure being contemplated or recently introduced. It assesses the suitability objective envisaged as critical for inclusion, associated challenge of revamping consumer protection laws, and imperative of improving financial literacy. The paper also discusses the case of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in the given context. The report is structured into the following chapters:

  • The Paradigm Shift in the Concept of Financial Inclusion;
  • Structure of the Banking and Microfinance Institution Sector in India;
  • State of Financial Inclusion;
  • Delivery Models, Regulations, and Other Issues;
  • Micro, Small, and Medium-sized Enterprises.
The Status of Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education in India  -  English (en)

Grupos de ahorro e inclusión financiera Paper 2016

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El documento es una guía para diferentes instituciones interesadas en generar inclusión financiera formal con grupos de ahorro y crédito,  en base a la experiencia de pilotos realizados en los programas de “generación de ingresos y finanzas rurales mediante grupos de la comunidad” implementado por iniciativas empresariales de desarrollo y el de “creación de un ecosistema rural de servicios financieros móviles inclusivos”, ejecutado por Bancolombia, en Colombia. El trabajo presenta una recopilación de experiencias y lecciones aprendidas en el proceso de articulación de grupos de ahorro comunitarios con entidades financieras, con el objetivo de analizar los contextos, tipo de organizaciones y productos que permitan lograr un complemento financiero a lo que actualmente ofrecen los grupos de ahorro.

Author Fondo Multilateral de Inversiones (FOMIN)
Publisher Fondo Multilateral de Inversiones (FOMIN)
Number of Pages 40
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Colombia
Keywords Grupos de ahorro; Inclusión Financiera
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The 2016 Brookings Financial and Digital Inclusion Project Report: Advancing Equitable Financial Ecosystems Report 2016

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The 2016 FDIP Report analyzes key changes in the global financial inclusion landscape over the previous year and broadens its scope by adding five new countries to the study: the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Egypt, Haiti, and Vietnam. The report’s findings show continuing progress across the global financial inclusion landscape. This assessment is driven in part by the recent launch of comprehensive financial inclusion strategies in several countries and, more broadly, by substantial progress in enhancing the digital financial services ecosystem.

Finally, the report identifies four priority areas where action is needed to advance inclusive finance:

  1. An increased focus on establishing (and then achieving) specific, measurable financial inclusion targets;
  2. Promoting more comprehensive data collection and analysis regarding financial access and usage, particularly among traditionally underserved groups such as women;
  3. Advancing regulatory efforts designed to facilitate financial inclusion; 
  4. Enhancing financial capability to promote sustainable financial inclusion.
Author Villasenor, J., West, D. & Lewis, R.
Publisher The Brookings Institution
Washington, D.C.
Number of Pages 164 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Egypt, Haiti, Vietnam
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Mobile Banking
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Financial Inclusion for the Rural Poor Using Agent Networks in Peru Paper 2016

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In developing countries, poor households often do not have access to formal financial products or use bank accounts to save for the future. Without a safe and secure way to save, many people rely on riskier and more expensive methods of managing their assets. Increasingly, government-to-person cash transfer programs are addressing this issue by providing beneficiaries with formal savings accounts through which they disburse cash transfers.

In Peru, evidence from one such program suggests that very few beneficiaries of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) use their accounts to save, preferring instead to withdraw the entire cash transfer immediately after it is made. Beneficiaries may prefer to withdraw their funds all at once due to the time and cost required to travel to a bank branch or automated teller machine (ATM) to access their account, especially in rural areas where there is limited banking infrastructure. Furthermore, although access is improved and travel time reduced, beneficiaries may not have the necessary knowledge or confidence when interacting with the formal financial system. This evaluation explores how the introduction of branchless banking and a workshop to build knowledge and trust of the formal financial system impacts beneficiaries’ attitudes toward this same system and savings behavior.

As a component of the pilot project and evaluation “Financial inclusion for the Rural Poor Using Agent Networks,” Banco de la Nación (BN) installed correspondent banking agents (MultiRed Agents) in municipalities and some shops on 30 districts of the Provinces of Puno, Cusco, Apurímac, and Ayacucho in Peru. Concurrently in 2015, the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) implemented education and trust workshops in a subset of the districts where agents were functioning with the objective of improving the knowledge, trust, and empowerment of beneficiaries of the state’s conditional cash transfer program (JUNTOS) in the formal financial system and encouraging the use of formal savings accounts via BN correspondent banking agents.

Author CGAP
Publisher CGAP, Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA)
Number of Pages 14 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Peru
Keywords Financial Inclusion, mobile money
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Microscopio Global 2006: analisis del entorno para la inclusion financiera 2016

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Ya está disponible el “Microscopio Global 2016: Análisis del entorno para la inclusión financiera”. Para esta publicación, tuvieron en cuenta 12 indicadores y 55 países. Este año, Perú y Colombia quedaron empatados en primer lugar, mientras India y Filipinas están empatados en tercer lugar. El informe resalta que la diferencia más notoria entre países con mayor puntaje y los de menor, es la gran atención que se le presta a las nuevas iniciativas en el campo de la inclusión financiera como por ejemplo los microseguros y los servicios financieros digitales. Los mismos benefician directamente el alcance de las IMFs hacia áreas rurales. 

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Financial Inclusion Paper 2016

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In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, along with a new set of development goals that are collectively called the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While the SDGs do not explicitly target financial inclusion, greater access to financial services is a key enabler for many of them. 

This working paper shows where and how financial services can help achieve the SDGs by reviewing the research on the link between financial inclusion and development. It staits that by moving away from cash and using digital payments to distribute social benefits and wages, governments can reduce costs and leakage, while at the same time advancing financial inclusion. Also, the evidence base discussed in this paper helps to inform policy makers and donors in identifying opportunities for further investment. It suggests that continued investment in research can help to build out the evidence on new opportunities— such as digital payments—and its impact on households and broader economies.

Author Leora Klapper, Mayada El-Zoghbi, and Jake Hess
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 20 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Sustainable Development, Access To Finance
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The Status of Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education in India Paper 2016 English (en)

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This paper describes the structure of banking and microfinance institutions in India relevant to the developing model of financial inclusion, as well as relevant regulatory structure and modes of delivery. It explains the current state of financial inclusion, as well as regulatory changes necessary to make the new architecture for inclusion viable, including a critique of some of the recommendations of the Mor Committee on Comprehensive Financial Services for Small Businesses and Low-Income Households. 

The paper then reviews modes of delivery and the regulatory structure being contemplated or recently introduced. It assesses the suitability objective envisaged as critical for inclusion, associated challenge of revamping consumer protection laws, and imperative of improving financial literacy. The paper also discusses the case of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in the given context. The report is structured into the following chapters:

  • The Paradigm Shift in the Concept of Financial Inclusion;
  • Structure of the Banking and Microfinance Institution Sector in India;
  • State of Financial Inclusion;
  • Delivery Models, Regulations, and Other Issues;
  • Micro, Small, and Medium-sized Enterprises.
The Status of Financial Inclusion, Regulation, and Education in India  -  English (en)

Financial Inclusion Fit to Size: Customizing digital credit for smallholder farmers in Tanzania Brief 2016

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Based on insights collected during their research, Dalberg's Design Impact Group designed and prototyped a new digital credit product for smallholder farmers and evaluated their response to it. This idealized digital credit product builds on existing products available in the Tanzanian market, but has five new components, each with multiple differentiated features, that meet the unique credit needs and behaviors of smallholders. These new components include:

  • Design enhancements to the core product to make loan sizes and repayment terms more relevant and manageable for smallholder farmers
  • Supporting features to improve customer engagement with the product
  • Ideas to increase the effectiveness of marketing, customer training, agent support, and other functions that drive product adoption and usage

For more informatio, consult the document below.

Author Juma, C.T., Pathak, P. Killewo, S.
Publisher The Initiative for Smallholder Finance
Number of Pages 11 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Tanzania
Keywords financial inlcusion, digital finance, Smallholder Farming, smallholders
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Payment Aspects of Financial Inclusion Paper 2016 English (en)

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This report provides an analysis of the payment aspects of financial inclusion, on the basis of which it sets out guiding principles designed to assist countries that seek to advance financial inclusion in their markets through payments. 

This report is premised on two key points: (i) efficient, accessible and safe retail payment systems and services are critical for greater financial inclusion; and (ii) a transaction account is an essential financial service in its own right and can also serve as a gateway to other financial services. For the purposes of this report, transaction accounts are defined as accounts (including e-money/prepaid accounts) held with banks or other authorised and/or regulated payment service providers (PSPs), which can be used to make and receive payments and to store value.

The report is structured into five chapters discussing the following:

  1. Introduction and general overview, including a description of the PAFI Task Force and its mandate, a brief discussion of transaction accounts, and the barriers to the access and usage of such accounts;
  2. An overview of the retail payments landscape from a financial inclusion perspective;
  3. Outline of a framework for enabling access and usage of payment services by the financially excluded. Each component of this framework is discussed in detail in the report;
  4. Key policy objectives when looking at financial inclusion from a payments perspective, and a number of suggestions in the form of guiding principles and key actions for consideration;
  5. Solutions to a number of issues in connection with measuring the effectiveness of financial inclusion efforts in the context of payments and payment services, with a particular emphasis on transaction account adoption and usage. 
Payment Aspects of Financial Inclusion  -  English (en)

Author World Bank
Publisher Bank for International Settlements, World Bank
Washington, DC
Number of Pages 82 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, payment services
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Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Financial Inclusion Paper 2016 English (en)

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Given the increasingly clear link between financial inclusion and development, governments should continue to push for greater access to and use of financial services. Prioritizing financial services does not take away resources from other key priorities set through the SDGs. The studies discussed in this report build a strong case that financial inclusion helps create the conditions that ultimately bring many of the SDGs within reach. In fact, by moving away from cash and using digital payments to distribute social benefits and wages, governments can reduce costs and leakage, while at the same time advancing financial inclusion. In the developing world, about Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Financial Inclusion 120 million unbanked adults receive government transfers in cash, according to the Global Findex. At the same time, more than 31 million unbanked adults in emerging countries are paid government wages in cash. Digitizing
these payments could bring millions of adults into the financial system for the first time and strengthen the digital financial infrastructure in emerging economies. Developing world governments have already seen that digital transfers can drive progress in financial inclusion. About 9 percent of adults in Latin America and the Caribbean receive digital government transfers, and nearly six of 10 of these adults opened their first account specifically to collect those payments. The same is true of about a third of digital government transfer recipients in the emerging world overall.

 

There also are many opportunities for businesses to create new accounts by switching to digital payments, improving efficiency while putting in place the conditions for increasing financial inclusion. About 260 million unbanked adults in the developing world receive private sector wage payments in cash. Switching to digital payments could potentially save significant time and resources for businesses and workers alike. Agricultural payments present another chance to expand access to the formal financial system, as roughly 440 million unbanked adults in the developing world are paid in cash for farm goods.

 

The evidence base discussed in this paper helps to inform policy makers and donors in identifying opportunities for further investment. Continued investment in research can help to build out the evidence on new opportunities—such as digital payments—and its impact on households and broader economies.

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Financial Inclusion  -  English (en)

Advancing financial inclusion through access to insurance: the role of postal networks Document 2016 English (en)

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The study draws on the existing literature on Posts, insurance and financial inclusion. The study starts with an overview of financial inclusion and what Posts have done, particularly in the field of insurance as one of four pillars of financial inclusion. Insurance products can make a significant positive difference in the lives of vulnerable individuals by helping households mitigate shocks and improve the management of expenses. However, there is a persistent insurance gap, particularly in developing countries. In the study, three types of business models for postal insurance are presented along with case studies based on the experience of six Posts of developing countries – Kazakhstan, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Morocco, Zambia and India. The study concludes by providing recommendations for Posts, insurance companies and policymakers on how they can work together to expand insurance coverage in their countries.

Advancing financial inclusion through access to insurance: the role of postal networks  -  English (en)

Author Guilherme Suedekum, UPU and ILO
Publisher the Universal Postal Union (UPU) and the International Labour Organization (ILO)
Switzerland
Number of Pages 52 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Insurance
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Financial Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean: Access, Usage, and Quality Paper 2015 English (en)

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The paper presents an overview of financial inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean, employing data for the three dimensions mentioned to outline a complete picture of their nature and characteristics in the region. This information is essential for identifying weaknesses in financial market development and serves as a basis for elaborating effective inclusion strategies. However, the levels of inclusion, in the region, in all its dimensions continue to be low, although with substantial differences among the economies. A considerable amount of the population continues to use the informal financial sector for making their transactions, particularly loans. Read the paper to find out more about the author’s conclusions and discussion of the most important results. 

Financial Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean: Access, Usage, and Quality  -  English (en)

Author Maria José Roa
Publisher Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos (CEMLA)
Mexico
Number of Pages 46 pp.
Volume / Issue# 19
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Americas
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Inclusive Finance
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Aging and Financial Inclusion: an Opportunity Report 2015

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This report presents the findings of the joint project on aging and financial inclusion from the Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion (CFI) and HelpAge International with support from the MetLife Foundation. The project was prompted by the demographic review carried out as part of CFI’s Financial Inclusion 2020 project, which drew attention to the rapidly aging global population and to the immediate challenges aging poses, particularly in middle income countries. CFI joined forces with HelpAge because of HelpAge’s deep knowledge about global aging issues. We intend for this project to be useful for those who work on the issue of aging, for financial services providers, for policymakers and other government stakeholders, and for support organizations.

The purpose of this report is to highlight the barriers and opportunities related to financial services in older age and throughout the aging process, a relatively neglected area of study. The report draws on literature from across the globe, but largely focuses on middle income countries, in particular Latin America, and includes a spotlight on Colombia. The report incorporates information gathered from two direct sources: first, an online poll of experts from the financial services sector and second, focus group research with older people in Colombia. The Colombia spotlight illustrates many of the points made in the main body of the report. It also provides a consumer perspective, especially from lower income people, on the extent to which older people in Colombia currently interact with formal financial services and know about the services on offer. While the Colombia case study contributes important insights to this debate, it is important to remember that every context is different.

This report charges policymakers and providers to consider older people as an increasingly important market segment whose needs are differentiated from those of younger adults. It suggests that, in keeping with advocacy that HelpAge has carried out for many years, social pensions can and should provide an essential floor for income during later life. Yet it recognizes that nearly all older people will need to put in place varied income strategies for themselves beyond pensions, and for that private financial services are an essential part of the solution.

Author Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion (CFI) and HelpAge International
Publisher Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion (CFI) and HelpAge International
Number of Pages 40 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, aging, Savings
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Digital Financial Inclusion:Implications for Customers, Regulators, Supervisors, and Standard-Setting Bodies Brief 2015

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This Brief aims to provide national and global policy makers with a clear picture of the rapid development of digital financial services for the poor and the need for their attention and informed understanding. It  proposes a concise definition of “digital financial inclusion” and summarizes its impact on financially excluded and underserved populations; outlines the new and shifting risks of digital financial inclusion models that are significant to regulators, supervisors, and standard-setting bodies (SSBs); and concludes with observations on digital financial inclusion issues on the policy-making horizon.

A Market Systems Approach to Financial Inclusion: Guidelines for Funders Document 2015

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The CGAP paper “A Market Systems Approach to Financial Inclusion: Guidelines for Funders”, which makes a part of a series of targeted resources for funders of financial inclusion and builds on research from all CGAP initiatives, their collective experience and suggest a new approach to supporting financial inclusion. This document is the suc­cessor to the Good Practice Guidelines for Funders of Microfinance (2006), and contin­ues to provide emerging lessons on how funders can facilitate the development of inclu­sive financial services markets. 

Author Deena M. Burjorjee and Barbara Scola
Publisher Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP)
Washington D.C., USA
Number of Pages 60 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion
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Inclusive Rural Financial Services Toolkits Toolkit 2015 English (en)

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Several toolkits are available on key issues faced in addressing rural finance in rural development programmes. The purpose of the toolkits is to:

  • build the capacity of project design and implementation teams in various thematic areas
  • support the scaling up agenda
  • support policy dialogue

Each toolkit related to inclusive rural financial services is composed of:

Teaser: Sets out the scope 
How To Do Note: Conceptualizes key issues and provides guidance for design and implementation.
Lessons Learned: Analyses past experiences with recommendations for the future.
The toolkits available are:

Loan guarantee funds: Teaser | How to do note | Lessons learned

Inclusive Rural Financial Services Toolkits  -  English (en)

Inclusión financiera en el Perú Article 2015

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El estudio establece que en Perú aún existen limitaciones en las políticas públicas para guiar los esfuerzos en el ámbito de la oferta y la demanda de servicios financieros, así como para tener un marco institucional adecuado. Entre los principales desafíos y recomendaciones en cuanto a la inclusión financiera  en Perú  el documento identifica: i) Desconcentrar el acceso al sistema financiero para que llegue a zonas pobres, rurales, remotas y con menor densidad poblacional. ii) Desarrollar canales alternativos innovadores (tales como la banca celular o digital) que faciliten la distribución de productos y servicios financieros iii) Realizar estudios desde la oferta para conocer las principales características de la población a ser incluida. iv) Determinar incentivos tributarios, legales, entre otros, para estimular el desarrollo de modelos de negocio inclusivos y rentables v) Impulsar iniciativas e intervenciones de educación financiera.

Author Varios
Publisher Instituto de Estudios Peruanos
Number of Pages 12
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Peru
Keywords Finanzas Inclusivas
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Mobile Payments: How Digital Finance is Transforming Agriculture Report 2015

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This report has been produced through primary research on agriculture mobile payments initiatives in Ghana, Uganda  and Zambia with the aim of understanding the potential of mobile finance for  the agricultural sector and how these barriers might be overcome. The research revealed that smallholders are an economically viable target market for mobile financial service and there have been identified three steps in the approach for replacing cash payments being made by large buyers to smallholders, with mobile payments. These steps are: (i) cash usage behavioural research (CUBeR); (ii) strategic alliance formation (StAF); and (iii) embedding mobile finance (EMoFi) into the value chain knowledge exchange and other interventions.

Author Lee H. Babcock
Publisher Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)
Wageningen, The Netherlands
Number of Pages 64 p.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords digital finance, mobile payments, Inclusive Finance
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Payment System Regulation for Improving Financial Inclusion Paper 2015

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Drawing from existing domestic experiences and the first results of the international debate, this paper tries to identify some high-level recommendations on how the payments system should be regulated to best achieve the particular goal of inclusion. The approach to be taken shall strongly depend on the existing institutional framework of a country and its economic and social context. However, some common trends can be identified.

In particular, it emerges that regulation in the field would require a general consideration of relevant issues within the wider context of regulation and oversight of the retail payments system of a country, and that only a safe and efficient national payments system can guarantee effective financial inclusion of a durable nature. In this wider context, the main issue is how specific measures to achieve these several objectives can converge: that is to say, how, when trade-offs are shown between inclusion and the other objectives of soundness, integrity and efficiency, these should be addressed, as well as how, when trade-offs do not specifically emerge, regulation adopted to achieve other objectives can also best address that of inclusion.

An adequate combination of general ex ante measures and individual ex post interventions by relevant authorities according to the concrete evolution of the market might ensure such a degree of flexibility to permit that short- or medium term trade-offs be addressed as to converge towards long-term “sustainable inclusion.”

Author Maria Chiara Malaguti
Publisher Center for Global Development
Washington, D.C.
Number of Pages 61 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Services, Financial Inclusion, payment services
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Global Partnership for Inclusive Finance - list of publications Website 2015 English (en)

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Publications, prepared ahead of the G20 Summit in France, focus on the key trends, challenges, and opportunities for accelerating progress in financial inclusion.

list of inclusive finance publications  -  English (en)

Spotlight on International Funders’ Commitments to Financial Inclusion Brief 2015 English (en)

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This brief analyzes trends in the international funding landscape based on a survey of 56 international funders. The total commitment of these funders toward financial inclusion in 2014 was USD 23.6 billion, representing 76% of the global estimate. The brief finds that despite continued pressure on public resources, public funders increased their commitments to financial inclusion in the past two years by an estimated average of 11% annually

CGAP Brief  -  English (en)

The Finance and Growth Debate in Africa: What Role for Financial Inclusion? Paper 2015 English (en)

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Financial development has been widely acknowledged as a contributor to economic growth. Recent evidence however reflects a dwindling of this relationship,especially in economies with high financial depth ratios. This paper reviews the author’s work in this field dating back 30 years. Although most literature supports the link between finance and growth, the robustness of the evidence seems to have waned mainly in response to financial instability occasioned by financial liberalisation and excessive credit growth. While financial depth may no longer be strongly correlated with economic growth, we provide evidence of the crucial role that access to finance could play in promoting financial development and bootstrapping economic growth in Africa. In particular, we emphasise the role of microfinance in enhancing access to finance by individuals and SMMEs. Properly designed, microfinance institutions would help promote economic growth and reduce poverty in Africa.

The Finance and Growth Debate in Africa: What Role for Financial Inclusion?  -  English (en)

Improving Financial Inclusion of Smallholder Farmers Conference Proceedings 2015

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The international conference Improving Financial Inclusion of Smallholder Farmers, organised by  Fondazione Giordano Dell'Amore took place on October 15th and 16th, 2015 in Milan, Italy.

Smallholders generally constitute the vast majority of farmers in most countries, and they account for 60% of global agriculture and provide up to 80% of food in developing countries. Despite their socio-economic importance, smallholder farmers represent the largest share of the developing world's undernourished. Facilitating access to appropriate financial products can improve their productivity, livelihood and food security; reduce risks; smooth cyclical cash flows; and help them manage their farm as a viable business. Through 3 plenary sessions and 9 workshops, over 30 international speakers will reflect and discuss on the development of microfinance solutions to improve financial inclusion of smallholder farmers.

For the conference proceedings, please click on the pdf document. 

Author Fondazione Giordano dell'Amore
Publisher Fondazione Giordano dell'Amore
Milan, Italy
Number of Pages 39 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Smallholder Farming
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Report on Progress in Inclusive Finance 2014 Report 2014

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This report is a summary of the data reported by investors on a set of indicators that are based on the Principles for Investors in Inclusive Finance (PIIF). These indicators form the Inclusive Finance – Indirect and Inclusive Finance – Direct modules of the PRI Reporting Framework. It analyzes data from investors, both direct and indirect, and identifies areas of improvement and steps that fund managers and asset owners can take in order to maximize the impact of their investments. 

Author Karin Malmberg, PRI
Publisher Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI)
Number of Pages 20 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Inclusive Finance, responsible investment
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Information graphic: Financial Inclusion: The Global Landscape of Progress Presentation 2014

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Financial inclusion is expanding around the world, transforming the lives of widely diverse populations. From market women in Kenya and small farmers in India, shopkeepers in China and villagers in the remote Colombian mountains, millions are gaining access to the financial tools and services they need to stabilize their lives, take advantage of opportunities, and plan for the future.

The UNSGSA's 2014 Annual Report features an infographic that highlights examples of innovation and progress in just a few countries. A wide range of effective approaches are increasingly being implemented in all corners of the globe.

Inclusive Finance: Challenges and Opportunities Article 2014 English (en)

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The three Rome-based United Nations food agencies (FAO, IFAD and WFP) give particular emphasis to the implementation of innovative financial instruments that are of particular relevance to smallholder farmers:

  • Credit through private-sector agricultural businesses.
  • Collateralization of physical assets
  • Collateralization of ”forward delivery” contracts.
  • New information and communication technologies
  • Savings and insurance. 
concept note  -  English (en)

Inclusión Financiera en América Latina y el Caribe: Datos y Tendencias Report 2014

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El documento es un reporte que presenta por primera vez información sobre inclusión financiera en América Latina y el Caribe en base a información local que hasta el momento no había sido utilizada para este fin hasta ahora subutilizada.  El trabajo constituye un aporte importante para comprender e identificar los avances y retos de la inclusión financiera así como para el diseño de políticas públicas y privadas más eficientes y efectivas

Seizing the Moment: On the Road to Financial Inclusion Financial Inclusion 2020 Synthesis Report Paper 2013 English (en)

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This report looks at why financial inclusion matters and why we are confident it can be achieved in the foreseeable future. The report is organized into three chapters:

Chapter 1 summarizes the case for financial inclusion in this decade: what financial inclusion is, why it matters, and why we believe it is increasingly possible. The chapter details how financial inclusion contributes to well-being for customers, countries, and providers. It also grounds the discussion in data about the current state of financial inclusion. Based on the research from Mapping the Invisible Market, it outlines the growing markets for financial services brought on by changing global demography and income growth. It highlights how technology innovations and policy initiatives are advancing inclusion.

Chapter 2 summarizes the five roadmaps to inclusion, recording the investigative journeys that took place in each of the five FI2020 working groups, and spotlighting the most important messages group members wanted to communicate to the global financial inclusion community. It also incorporates reflections on several special populations segments, drawn from FI2020’s consultations with representatives of these groups.

Chapter 3 calls providers, policymakers, and support organizations to action, based on the principles and recommendations emerging from the five working group consultations.

Paper  -  English (en)

Author The Center for Financial Inclusion
Publisher The Center for Financial Inclusion
Number of Pages 42 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion
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Opportunities and Obstacles to Financial Inclusion in Peru Paper 2013 English (en)

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The main objective of this survey was to identify the opinions of: service providers, investors, support organizations members, regulators and supervisors among other institutions, around the most relevant opportunities and obstacles identified to Financial Inclusion. This list of opportunities and difficulties has been consolidated by CFI staff and supported by experts.

publication  -  English (en)

Author David Álvarez Cisneros
Publisher The Center for Financial Inclusion
Tunis, Tunisia
Number of Pages 53 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion
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Financial Inclusion in Africa Document 2013 English (en)

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The objective of this publication is to contribute into the debate on financial inclusion on the continent while documenting the state of financial inclusion in Africa and informing policymakers, financial sector stakeholders and development actors about existing opportunities and specific challenges that need attention and action. It describes the multi- faceted nature of financial inclusion through a compilation of chapters discussing the topic from different perspectives. It is structured around three main parts. The first part lays the groundwork for the subsequent analyses, the second part looks at some transformational mechanisms and approaches designed to serve the underserved, and the third part tackles strategic issues and options.

Financial Inclusion in Africa  -  English (en)

Author Thouraya Triki and Issa Faye
Publisher African Development Bank (AfDB)
Tunisia
Number of Pages 148 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Financial Inclusion
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Growing Income, Growing Inclusion: How Rising Incomes at the Base of the Pyramid Will Shape Financial Inclusion Report 2013 English (en)

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This report presents data and analysis on increasing incomes at the base of the pyramid. It analyzes existing financial services use among the bottom 40 percent of the global population and considers the ways this usage may change with rising income. The report analyses the trends at a national level through examples from South Africa, Mexico, and Nigeria. The document shows that increases in income at the bottom of the pyramid provide both an opportunity and a challenge for the financial inclusion community. The opportunity emerges from the large number of people moving into a new income bracket. The ability and propensity of people in the vulnerable class to use formal financial services is set to increase, forming an enormous new market. Income growth also poses a challenge because serving this market effectively requires providers to understand how and why a person may shift from informal to formal financial services. Providers must use this understanding to innovate in products, delivery, and marketing.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Sonja Kelly & Elisabeth Rhyne
Publisher Accion
Number of Pages 34 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Financial Services, Inclusive Finance
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Global Financial Development Report 2014: Financial Inclusion Report 2013 English (en)

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The second Global Financial Development Report seeks to contribute to the evolving debate on financial inclusion. It follows the inaugural 2013 Global Financial Development Report, which re-examined the state’s role in finance following the global financial crisis. Both reports seek to avoid simplistic views, and instead take a nuanced approach to financial sector policy based on a synthesis of new evidence.

This Global Financial Development Report contributes new data and research that helps fill some of the gaps in knowledge about financial inclusion. It also draws on existing insights and experience to contribute to the policy discussion on this critical development issue.

the world bank report 2014  -  English (en)

Progress in Responsible Financial Inclusion: Global mapping report and selected case studies Report 2013 English (en)

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The report provides a detailed look at the implementation of responsible finance principles across the three pillars highlighting emerging trends in consumer protection regulation, financial institutions’ self-regulation, and financial education through case studies selected on the basis of initial results and potential for scalability, with some early results. The report is based on the results of the global mapping survey conducted in 2013.  This is a joint knowledge product of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) on behalf of the Responsible Finance Forum Community of Practice.

Progress in Responsible Financial Inclusion: Global mapping report and selected case studies  -  English (en)

Author International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Publisher International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Washington, D.C.
Number of Pages 120 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion, responsible finance
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Financial Inclusion in Africa Report 2013

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This papaer provides a definition of financial inclusion and discusses issues related to its measurement. It also describes what financial inclusion really means from a number of different perspectives including small and medium enterprises, women, rural areas and agriculture, and fragile states. This paper is structured around three main parts. The first part lays the groundwork for the subsequent analyses, the second part looks at some transformational mechanisms and approaches designed to serve the underserved, and the third part tackles strategic issues and options.

Author Thouraya Triki andIssa Faye
Publisher African Development Bank (AfDB)
Tunis, Tunisia
Number of Pages 74 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Financial Inclusion
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Deep Outreach Financial Inclusion: Mass–Scale, Low Cost Saving and Borrowing for Those Microfinance Cannot Profitably Reach Paper 2013

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This paper discusses the advantages of savings groups as a tool to bring useful financial services to the rural poor. It presents the examples of Pact’s Women’s Empowerment Program, Saving for Change by Oxfam America/Freedom from Hunger, and Care’s Village Savings and Loan Association model to make a case for savings groups as the most appropriate tool to reach the poorest.

The paper states that reaching villagers at scale requires a shift from debt to savings and from building financial institutions to supporting freestanding savings and lending groups

Panamá Microfinanzas: Gestión y cobertura de riesgo crediticio Article 2013

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El documento muestra que la inclusión financiera en Panamá está muy por debajo de los niveles de otros países de América Latina particularmente en lo que se refiere a niveles de cobertura y acceso de población rural, adulta y joven, y acceso limitado al crédito por parte de sectores informales de la economía de MIPyMES. De acuerdo al análisis entre los principales desafíos en cuanto a inclusión financiera están: el incremento de la porción de la población adulta con microcrédito, el incremento de la proporción de la población de trabajadores del sector informal con microcrédito y lograr mayor acceso por parte de adultos para que estos puedan obtener créditos en el sector financiero formal.

Innovative financing for inclusive agricultural development Article 2013

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As government aid budgets shrink, new ways of financing development are emerging, involving partnerships between development agencies and private sector companies. This article explores the inclusiveness of smallholder farmers of these financing modalities.

This article examines three aspects of private sector investments in development:

  • the various concepts used to encourage private investments in development, their background and underlying rationale;
  • the challenges facing the private sector in reaching out to smallholder farmers; and
  • the changing roles of development agencies, the private sector and governments to ensure the inclusiveness of investments in agricultural development
Author Greijn, H.; Neefjes, R.; Visser, P.; Desalegn, P.
Publisher capacity.org
Number of Pages 4 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Innovations, Financial Inclusion, Agricultural Development
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Financial Inclusion and the Linkages to Stability, Integrity and Protection: Insights from the South African Experience Paper 2012

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Country level policy makers and international financial sector standard-setting bodies simultaneously pursue the objectives of financial inclusion (I), financial stability (S), financial integrity (I), and financial consumer protection (P) (collectively I-SIP). There is good reason to believe that, at the level of outcomes, I-SIP objectives may be mutually reinforcing and interdependent. In practice, at the policy level, the linkages are less well known and policy makers face choices that are often unnecessarily framed as tradeoffs.

This report introduces and develops the concept that a proportionate approach to any financial inclusion measure (and specifically to its regulatory and supervisory design and implementation) should seek to optimize the I-SIP linkages: maximizing synergies and minimizing tradeoffs and other negative outcomes. Based on analysis of South African experience, the report proposes a methodology for optimizing the I-SIP objectives.

Author CGAP
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 47 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Southern Africa
South Africa
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Agribusiness Linkages
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Global Financial Development Report 2013: Rethinking the Role of the State in Finance Report 2012 English (en)

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The goal of this inaugural Global Financial Development Report is to contribute to the evolving debate on the role of the state in the financial sector, highlighted from the perspective of development. The report is aimed at a broad range of stakeholders, including governments, international financial institutions, nongovernmental organizations, think tanks, academics, private sec- tor participants, donors, and the wider development community. The report offers policy advice based on research and lessons from operational work.

the world bank report 2013  -  English (en)

Banking on Change: Breaking Barriers to Financial Inclusion Report 2012

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This report describes the achievements of Banking on Change, an initiative towards financial inclusion that Barclays, CARE International UK, and Plan UK have implemented in eleven countries, mainly in Africa. It outlines how the partnership has sought to tackle some of the barriers to financial inclusion it has faced.

Banking on Change attempts to link informal Village Savings and Loans Associations to formal banking services. It has reached 513,000 people in three years. Barriers faced include lack of financial understanding between providers and consumers, gender and age discrimination, poor people’s low income and erratic cash flow, lack of suitable products and processes, geographic distances and high transaction costs for banks, and national and international policies that inhibit financial inclusion. Key recommendations include:

  1. Ensure financial inclusion is part of the new UN Development framework;
  2. Recognize group banking as a springboard to financial inclusion;
  3. Build bridges between informal and formal financial sectors;
  4. Invest in, and expand access to, financial literacy;
  5. Develop strong checks and balances to protect poor and vulnerable people.
A Structured Approach to Understanding the Financial Service Needs of the Poor in Mexico Brief 2012

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Financial service providers have traditionally focused more on the supply side of financial inclusion than on the demand side. Undoubtedly, it is easier to measure number of branches, total customers served, and aggregated portfolios rather than attempt to get into the messy business of poor and underserved customers’ lives, businesses, and needs. However, we are starting to recognize the fundamental importance of working directly with customers to understand their financial habits and needs, as well as the role of finance in their lives. This brings a new perspective on the problem of financial inclusion: a deeper understanding of demand could be key to designing a more meaningful and sustainable offering, particularly as we realize how little we actually know.

Empowering rural communities through financial inclusion Brief 2012

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While they need it the most, rural communities remain the largest unserved market for financial services. Ensuring their financial inclusion can unlock the considerable economic potential of rural areas.

Social Cash Transfers and Financial Inclusion: Evidence from Four Countries Technical Note 2012

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The note presents the evidence gained from a comprehensive study done in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and South Africa entitled “Banking the Poor via G2P Payments”. Some of the results suggest program beneficiaries gained by not having to collect transfers in person in a specific place and time. Also, they seem to save part of the transfers and keep these savings in their bank accounts.

Solutions for Financial Inclusion: Serving Rural Women Brief 2011

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The study highlights the specific gender based social, cultural and legal barriers that rural women face in accessing and using financial services in Uganda and examines the operational challenges to sustainably serving this market.

Principles for Investors in Inclusive Finance Article 2011

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Principles for Investors in Inclusive Finance (PIIF) provides a framework for responsible investment in inclusive finance. Inclusive finance focuses on expanding access to affordable and responsible financial products and services by poor and vulnerable populations. This also includes organisations that are often unable to gain access to financial products and services such as micro- and small-enterprises. A wide range of financial products and services are incorporated within the remit of inclusive finance including savings, credit, insurance, remittances, and payments.

Author Principles for Responsible Investment Initiative (PRI)
Number of Pages 4 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Réglementation de la protection des consommateurs dans les environnements à faible accès: opportunités de promotion de la finance responsable Report 2010

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Les questions de protection des consommateurs actuellement débattues et les solutions proposées sont-elles pertinentes pour les pays en développement, ou les marchés, produits, prestataires et consommateurs sont-ils trop différents?

La présente Note Focus cherche à répondre à cette question, en s’appuyant sur divers diagnostics de protection des consommateurs élaborés par le CGAP dans plus d’une dizaine de pays. Ce rapport s'appuie également sur des consultations organisées auprès de représentants d’organes de réglementation partout dans le monde, sur l’analyse de travaux de recherche et d’expériences menés dans des pays développés et en développement, et sur les résultats d'enquête sur l'inclusion financière.

Author Brix,L.; McKee, K.
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 36 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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New opportunities to tackle the challenge of financial inclusion Paper 2010

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In this paper authors review the relevance of formal financial services –and in particular savings— to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. They also highlight the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovation and investments to take place.

Author Ignacio Mas, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Publisher Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Number of Pages 12 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion
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Financial Inclusion in the Middle East and North Africa Technical Note 2009 English (en)

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The provides an assessment of the state of financial inclusion in the MENA region, and identifies constraints, opportunities, and priorities for improving access to finance.

Financial Inclusion in the Middle East and North Africa  -  English (en)

Author Douglas Pearce
Publisher The World Bank
Number of Pages 44 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Northern Africa
Keywords Financial Inclusion, Financial Access
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Access to Finance in Nigeria Paper 2009

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This report provides a diagnostic of access to finance and identifies key issues for microfinance, branchless banking and SME finance. The over-arching issues across all three sectors include the following:

  • Greater transparency of financial performance and market information
  • Strengthen capacity at all levels
  • Promote financial infrastructure
  • Promote consumer protection
  • Coordinate efforts

The report addresses microfinance, branchless banking, SME finance, and cross-cutting issues for access to finance. For each area of analysis, the key findings and recommendations are summarized in the paper.

Author J. Isern; A. Agbakoba; M. Flaming at all.
Publisher CGAP and the World Bank
Number of Pages 110 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Western Africa
Nigeria
Keywords Access To Finance, Microfinance Lending, Small And Medium Enterprises (Smes)
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Rural Finance Paper 1999

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This paper aims to alert policy-makers and development practitioners to the key policy issues which arise in the context of rural finance and poverty alleviation. They are:

  • the types of finance required by the rural poor;
  • the delivery mechanisms currently in place, both formal and informal; and
  • the steps required, where appropriate, to improve both availability and accessibility of financial services.

Innovative approaches are needed to lower costs and increase access of rural financial services to the rural poor. Two key strategies suggested are savings mobilisation and linking the informal and formal sectors. Other recommended approaches need to build on the relative strengths of existing formal and informal structures; integrate the complementary roles of financial and non-financial public and non-governmental organisations in decreasing the gaps in the supply of financial services to the poor; couple credit with non financial business development activities to reduce production and market risks; and use group-based activities as a means for risk-sharing and reduced transaction costs.

Author Goodland, A.; Onumah, G.; Amadi, J.; Griffith, G.
Publisher Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich
Number of Pages 42 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Poverty Reduction, Financial Linkages, Savings Mobilization, Business Development Services (Bds)
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