农村金融服务

金融中介是一个重要环节。通过这个过程,资金可以从供应商流向潜在用户。在大多数国家,各种机构、部门和市场均提供金融中介服务,其中包括银行等正规机构、合作社等半正式机构以及贸易商、放贷人等非正式金融服务提供者。

在农村地区提供金融服务是一项特殊挑战,因为农业具有依赖自然资源、生产周期长和易受风险影响等独特特征,并且分散的农民居民会大大增加金融服务的运营成本。我们的学习中心旨在汇集各种资源,帮助金融服务提供商在不同国家的不同农村环境中实现有效运作,并以可持续的方式扩大其金融服务的范围。

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Lay-away for agricultural inputs--A digital solution from Tanzania Technical Note 2020 English (en)

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Savings and deposits, Technology and outreach, Country studies, Africa

The expansion of mobile payments in sub-Saharan Africa has been at the forefront of the global increase in mobile account ownership. However, account usage remains a challenge in the region as elsewhere. This learning paper documents the Grameen Foundation (US) and Positive International Ltd’s value proposition for the use of digital savings tools for smallholders in Tanzania.

The project provided the opportunity to test how far agriculture households are willing to save for short term goals such as input purchases, and whether or not flexible layaway schemes can substitute conventional savings or credit products to meet financial needs in a timely and cost-effective manner.

Credit constrained farmers often choose not to buy inputs such as seeds and fertilizers or purchase poor quality inputs. While suppliers such as agrodealers are willing to provide inputs on credit, they have limited cash flows at their level and formal financial access is sometimes as difficult for suppliers as it is for smallholders. Another issue is the value proposition of inputs themselves – these need to be of good quality and applied at the right time and quantity for producers to see the kinds of productivity gain that would justify an ongoing investment on their part.

In this context a range of agribusiness are currently testing digital tools that can help build awareness on the appropriate use of inputs as also test savings models for input purchases. These agribusiness like Positive see digital tools as an important driver for input sales. The digital tool for input financing (DIFT) tested by Positive International and Grameen has four key focus areas: a crop investment plan to guide farmers on the best quality inputs, time and quantity of application in relation to their crops and land sizes/ condition; a flexible layaway program suited to farmer needs that allowed them to save up any amount, at any frequency for inputs; the timely purchase and delivery of the inputs to the smallholder farmers and agronomic training through the platform.

One key innovation in this project which was valued by farmers is the utilization of a savings-based approach with flexibility of payment size and frequency. However, following the launch of the pilot toolkit a significant amount of work and time was needed to build trust in the savings service, ensure market coordination between the distributor and agro-dealers and adapt the technology to the variety of crops and inputs needed by different farmers.

A general lesson learned is the need for building longer periods into the project timelines and ramp-up of agriculture and digital finance pilots because of the amount of time taken before customers recognize and trust a digital savings service. Additionally, because the layaway was intrinsically linked to the inputs delivery system – the timeliness and selection of inputs on offer made a significant different to customer use and retention. 

Document  -  English (en)

Publisher Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
Number of Pages 16
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Tanzania
Keywords mobile payments, agriculture household, saving for purchase, Tanzania
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Making agricultural and climate risk insurance gender inclusive Brief 2020 English (en)

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Insurance, Gender

IFAD’s technical assistance programme INSURED (Insurance for rural resilience and economic development) has been building knowledge about how to strengthen women producers’ access to climate risk insurance. Working with partners, INSURED supported research, and fieldwork in Ethiopia including group discussions with smallholders about insurance options. 

Rural women in developing countries play a huge and diverse role in agriculture. Some are smallholders, others are wage labourers or unpaid workers on family farms. Some women are members of producers’ groups with independent incomes, or are in charge of market gardening for consumption and sale. Often with multiple roles, they are all part of the female farming community and pillars of rural household development. Overall, women make up about half the agricultural labour force in developing countries, and a smaller percentage own a farm. Together with their heavy burden of care work, they therefore shoulder significant responsibilities for both food production and income generation.
Farmers in developing countries live and work in high-risk environments, but not everyone is equally vulnerable. Women and men respond to risks differently, and women are harder hit by shocks. Women are more likely to die in natural disasters or suffer more from resulting food shortages, and their lower levels of economic participation undermine their resilience. Women’s vulnerability is rooted in interlocking inequalities. These include restricted access to resources, lower levels of land and livestock ownership, and of education. Because they mainly work in the informal sector, women have low levels of formal social protection. In addition, the impact of shocks on the whole household may affect them disproportionately. Crucially, they lack access to agricultural risk management techniques and to formal financial systems, including risk transfer options such as agricultural and climate risk insurance. 

Document  -  English (en)

Publisher IFAD
Number of Pages 4
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Climate and environment, Gender
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Digitizing Value Chain Payments -- A digital solution from Ghana Technical Note 2020 English (en)

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This resource appears in: Agribusiness and enterprise support, 农村金融服务, Technology and outreach, Value chain finance

In Ghana, Tanager has been complementing the development of agribusiness markets by linking agribusinesses with ecosystems for cashless banking as a bridge between rural communities and brick-and-mortar banking services. In order to roll out mobile payment platforms across supply chains, and provide last-mile financial services to rural farmers, Tanager partners with agribusinesses, producers, and mobile network operators to streamline procurement processes. Mobile money platforms reduce the risks associated with agricultural value chain payments and offer an opportunity to extend other (financial) services. Tanager works with financial providers to adapt their services to the needs of agricultural buyers and suppliers, and supports producers to build their financial acumen, establish credit histories, and develop relationships with financial service providers.

This work was initially operationalized with one agribusiness (GADCO) in the rice value chain. With proof of concept, the technology now extends to three different crops (paddy rice, maize, soya beans) and seeds such as maize, millets, groundnut and cowpeas among five agribusiness partners. With financial support from AGRA, Tanager builds partnerships between smallholder farmers, financial institutions and value chain actors through the use of mobile wallets to access payments, credit and saving services. This initiative is a partnership between Tanager and AGRA through the Financial Inclusion for Smallholder Farmers in Africa (FISFAP) program. The key mobile network operator (MNO) partners are Vodafone and AirtelTigo, while the main banking partner was Premium Bank, after DALEX Bank and Capital Bank withdrew from the partnership.

This learning brief gives an overview of how the expansion of digital payments and financial services in Ghana has been promoted, even as the partnership role transitions to a local partner, Farmerline.

Document  -  English (en)

Is there a case for for-purpose remittances? Report 2020 English (en)

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Remittances and payments

Remittances act as key sources of financial support for households: They reduce the likelihood of impoverishment, contribute to improved health and education, and provide greater resilience to financial shocks. To maximise remittance impact from the United Kingdom to these countries, this research investigated remittance senders’ demand for for-purpose remittance products and whether these products could lead to increased formal remittance flows, improved customer retention and increased customer acquisition.

There are two types of for-purpose remittance products:

Labelling is when remittances are sent to an individual with an intended purpose attached (e.g. sending your grandmother GBP100 with a note that says the money is meant to cover her visit to the doctor).
Labelling with enforcement is when remittances are sent directly to an institution instead of an individual (e.g. sending GBP100 directly to the doctor’s office to pay for your grandmother’s appointment).
The findings indicate that survey respondents reported that they would not only take up for-purpose remittance products but that these products would result in them sending more money more frequently and/or to more people. Piloting for-purpose remittance products is the next step in validating the business case of such products.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Kate Rinehart-Smit, Camila Haux, Antonia Esser, Laura Muñoz Pérez, Mia Thom
Publisher Cenfri
Number of Pages 39
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Remittance product
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Agricultural finance and the youth, Prospects for financial inclusion in Uganda Paper 2020 English (en)

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Country studies, Africa, Inclusive finance

The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current state of financial inclusion of the rural youth in Uganda, with a specific focus on their engagement in the agricultural sector and the
financial services that are available to them to pursue their business ventures in this area. The study seeks to illustrate and bring to light the core constraints and opportunities associated with the provision of tailored financial services to young agricultural entrepreneurs in the country, while showcasing the essential role that key support actors (such as the Government, Central Bank, international development institutions, NGOs, foundations and many others) can play in fostering the provision and uptake of such services.

The study employs a methodological approach that blends extensive desk research with extensive data gathering at field level (both quantitative and qualitative) carried out through surveys and interviews with key stakeholders in Uganda’s agricultural and financial sectors. The study is meant to support FAO’s interventions in the country in the domains of financial inclusion and decent employment opportunities for the rural youth, with a specific view to enabling partnerships with relevant financial institutions and apexlevel organizations capable and willing to support the development of a range of youth-tailored financial products and other complementary activities.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Niclas Benni, David Berno, Maria del Puerto Soria
Publisher FAO
Number of Pages 84
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Uganda
Keywords Financial Inclusion, decent employment, rural youth
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Supply Chain Finance--A digital solution from Kenya Paper 2020 English (en)

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Technology and outreach, Value chain finance

At harvest time many smallholder farmers sell their produce to informal traders who pay cash on delivery but offer low prices without additional services like input and extension services. Farmers need cash on delivery to meet their immediate needs such as school fees payments, family emergencies and credit repayments. However, payments are often delayed which can result in farmers getting indebted. The expectation of delay can also lead farmers to side-sell to informal buyers causing farmers to miss out on good prices and value addition services. It prevents the establishment of a solid relationship between farmers and professional buyers who offer better prices. Supply chain finance has rarely been tested with smallholders in loose value chains.

The paper lays out key lessons from the deployment of innovative supply chain financing solutions in the agriculture food value chains. A key takeaway in this paper is that due to the unstructured nature of the food crop markets and the dominance of cash-based transactions, the demand for supply chain financing solution is low in staple food value chains. It is also useful for researchers who may want to build a body of knowledge on value chain financing mechanisms that work. 

Document  -  English (en)

Publisher The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa
Number of Pages 20
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Kenya
Keywords Supply Chain Finance; Digital, Kenya
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Rural finance in Sierra Leone strengthened by IFAD projects – new report Report 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Rural Financial Services: General, Rural outreach, Rural Invest

Rural development projects financed and supported by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) expanded access to rural finance and increased agricultural production in Sierra Leone, despite the civil war (1991-2002) and Ebola epidemic (2014-2015), according to a new report released on 27 November 2019. The report prepared by the Independent Office of Evaluation of IFAD (IOE), reviews the past 17 years of work that IFAD carried out in partnership with the government of Sierra Leone, from 2003 to 2019.

According to the report’s findings, IFAD increased the reach of rural finance – including to remote areas – to an even larger group than originally planned. Over 280,000 households were reached through rural finance initiatives in the Northern, Southern and Eastern Provinces - more than 120 per cent of the envisaged target. 

Digital Financial Services in Nigeria: State of the Market Report 2019 Paper 2019

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This resource appears in: Business Support Services: General, ICT applications, 农村金融服务

In-depth exploration of consumer profiles, the gender gap, and a review of DFS policy landscape.

The 2019 Digital Financial Services in Nigeria State of Market Report is the fourth in the series and presents consumer and gender profiles with more contextual relevance and linkages. It contains key insights from analysis of disaggregated data on banked, under-banked and unbanked adult Nigerians and also the widening gender gap. 

There is also a high-level review of the progress of market-enabling policy recommendations made in 2017. The section explores how much progress has been made so far, which recommendations have been implemented and which ones are outstanding. 

Author Olanrewaju Adelaja, Olubanjo Adetunji, Olawale Ajai, Timothy Aluko, Olayinka David-West, Nkemdilim Iheanachor, Emmanuel Ogbu, Omotayo Muritala, Ijeoma Nwagwu, Ibukun Taiwo, Samuel Umoh & Immanuel Umukoro
Publisher Sustainable and Inclusive Digital Financial Services (SIDFS)
Number of Pages 107 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Nigeria
Keywords digital financial services, Market Assessments, Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria
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GFiN - One Year On Report 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务

The Global Financial Inclusion Network (GFiN) is a network of international regulators and related organizations committed to supporting financial innovation and to creating a framework for co-operation between regulators to share experiences and approaches to innovation. The GFiN has rapidly grown over the past year from its 12 founding members, to be a global dialogue with 35 Member Regulators and 7 Observers from 21 jurisdictions. 

This report sets out what the GFiN has been doing over the past year, the challenges it has faced, achievements, and its ambitions for the future. It also aims to show that it is listening to stakeholders, and welcomes feedback in order to ensure that the GFiN continues to add value.

Key facts about the GFiN:

  • 35 members and 7 observers from 21 jurisdictions.
  • 99 responses from 26 jurisdictions received in response to the initial GFiN consultation.
  • 44 applications from 17 jurisdictions for the inaugural GFiN cross-border test pilot with 8 firms being selected to develop testing plans.
  • Nearly 60 representatives attended the first biannual meeting of the GFiN held in London in May.
Competition and Digital Financial Services 2019

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This resource appears in: ICT applications, 农村金融服务, Rural Financial Services: General

These working papers investigate competition issues in digital financial services (DFS), providing both a survey of the main issues at each step of the DFS value chain as well as going in depth on topics such as digital data and credit card interchange fees. Drawing on both experience and research, these papers provide regulators and stakeholders alike a solid framework for understanding how competition policy, regulation and behaviour by market players can effect the level playing field of DFS in emerging markets.

Author Ariadne Plaitakis and Matthew Soursourian
Publisher CGAP Background Documents
Number of Pages 128 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords digital financial services, Competition, value chain, digital data, Regulators, competition policy, market players
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Guidelines for micro-finance and credit services in support of small-scale fisheries in Asia Report 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务

These Guidelines for increasing access of small-scale fisheries to credit and microfinance services in Asia have been developed to support the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines).

The purpose of these guidelines is fourfold, i.e. to:

• Increase awareness about the financial service needs of small-scale fishers (SSF) for more sustainable and inclusive access to finance;

• Guide policy and decision makers in the Asia-Pacific region and elsewhere, to help introduce and incentivize financial services to small-scale fishers, with the ultimate objective to encourage investment in the industry and by doing so influence and strengthen sustainability, ecological and economic viability of these fisheries;

• Build capacity among financial service providers, fisherfolk organizations, NGOs, and concerned government agencies, to design and implement financial service products and programmes that suit the needs of small-scale fishing communities and enhance social protection; and

• Promote financial services that incentivize and reward a responsible and sustainable conduct of fishing, fish processing and marketing operations.

The document commences by laying out the background and context, purpose and target audience of these Guidelines. It describes why microfinance and credit are important for small scale fisheries and why many small-scale fishers are not currently financed, which includes a discussion of risks. The Guidelines suggest entry and leverage points for actors interested in supporting the access of financial services for SSFs and compares agriculture (smallholders) and SSF business characteristics.

Author Grace, L., van Anrooy, R.
Publisher FAO; APRACA
Number of Pages 56 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Asia
Keywords Microfinance, small-scale fisheries
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Harnessing the Power of Mobile Money to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals Paper 2019

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This resource appears in: ICT applications, 农村金融服务, Rural Financial Services: General

Exploring ways in which mobile money contributes to the digitalization of finance

Over the last decade, mobile money has been disrupting traditional financial services and transforming the lives of hundreds of millions of people across developing countries. Today, with over $1.3 billion a day processed by over 866 million registered accounts in 90 countries, mobile money has evolved into a broader payments platform that provides access to life-enhancing services, such as healthcare, education, employment, transportation and social protection. As national economies become increasingly dependent on digital technology, the power of mobile money to harness digital finance for sustainable development is strengthening.

This report brings together existing evidence to explore the ways in which mobile money is contributing to the digitalization of finance to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The insights presented here illustrate the potential of mobile money to help achieve the 2030 targets by driving sustainable and inclusive growth, and providing solutions to some of the world’s most intractable development challenges.

Author Mariana Lopez, Senior Advocacy Manager, Mobile Money (GSMA)
Publisher GSMA
Number of Pages 31 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Inclusion; Digital financial services
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Smallholder Households: Distinct Segments, Different Needs Paper 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务

The 500 million smallholder households worldwide represent a large pool of potential financial services customers. However, they are not a monolithic group. To create and provide appropriate and desirable products for the segments within this group, financial services providers, government bodies, and agricultural development partners need to understand the segments they want to serve.

This Focus Note proposes an approach that distinguishes three segments of smallholder households—Subsisting, Commercializing, and Diversifying—according to their crop and livestock sales, amount of agricultural land, and smallholder livelihood profile. Using data from nationally representative surveys of smallholder households in Mozambique, Uganda, Tanzania, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria, and Bangladesh, the analysis estimates the market size of each segment and outlines recommendations on high-value financial solutions. Key findings include:

  • The Commercializing segment is the primary market for financial solutions related to agricultural goals.
  • The Diversifying segment is in transition and generally values the standard portfolio of financial services.
  • To serve the more vulnerable Subsisting segment at scale, partnerships, technology, and comprehensive approaches to financial and nonfinancial services are key.
  • Agriculture exerts a strong influence on the identity and income of smallholder households. But their financial inclusion is not primarily determined by their agricultural livelihood profile.
  • Farm and nonfarm aspects of their livelihoods need to be considered to help each segment of smallholder households effectively build resilience and capture opportunities
Author Jamie Anderson, Ramesh Karuppusamy, Paul Enrico Neumann, Howard Miller; Ram Tamara
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 12 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Product Development, SME's
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INSURED - Insurance for rural resilience and economic development Brief 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Rural Financial Services: General, Insurance, Agricultural insurance

The paper examines a technical assistance programme increasing the resilience of poor rural households to climate risks. It explores insurance for rural resilience and economic development. 

INSURED is a USD3.8 million programme financed by Sida (the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) and implemented by IFAD through the Platform for Agricultural Risk Management (PARM). The four‑year programme’s goal is threefold: – increase the resilience of poor rural households in the face of climate risks – build their capacity to manage risks – strengthen their livelihoods. The overall objective of INSURED is to protect the incomes of rural women and men and to promote investment in smallholder agriculture – by smallholders themselves and the public and private sectors, including financial service providers, value chain actors and governments. 

Key Facts

  • INSURED promotes climate and agricultural insurance as a cross-cutting tool in rural development 
  • USD 3.8 million
  • Financed by Sida
  • Four years: 2018-2021
  • Implemented by IFAD through PARM
  • Geographical focus: Global – with core activities in Cambodia, Indonesia, Uganda, Zambia
Author Massimo Giovanola, Technical Specialist at IFAD, and Emily Coleman, Financial Inclusion and Insurance Expert at IFAD
Publisher International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Number of Pages 2 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords rural resilience, Economic Development, Technical Assistance, smallholder investment in agriculture
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Access to markets for small actors in the roots and tubers sector. Tailored financial services and climate risk management tools to link small farmers to markets Report 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Risk management

The roots and tubers industry in sub-Saharan Africa has been growing steadily in recent years. Nevertheless, a series of challenges, including lack of access to finance and climate change related events, has prevented the majority of actors in these value chains, who are mainly small farmers and small processors, from taking advantage of such growth. In order to properly assess such challenges, the project “Strengthening linkages between small actors and buyers in the roots and tubers sector in Africa” conducted a series of studies to identify relevant gaps, constraints and opportunities to develop tailored financial products and risk management strategies for small farmers. The present publication provides a summary of the most important lessons learned, with the related policy recommendations.

Author Pera, M., Bavagnoli, M. & Benni, N.;
Publisher Food and Agricultural Organization of UN
Number of Pages 60 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Risk Management, Financial Inclusion, Access to Markets
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Fair Play: Ensuring Competition in Digital Financial Services Paper 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Rural Financial Services: General, Collateral regulation, Prudential regulation

Providing guidance to financial sector regulators for identifying anti-competitive behavior

In many emerging economies, digital financial services (DFS) markets are limited to one or two major providers, reducing innovation, customer choice and potentially facilitating monopolistic or cartelistic behavior. Why are DFS markets prone to concentration? Is this a problem?

This primer applies a framework to help answer these questions and demonstrate how regulation can have a substantial impact on competitive dynamics in the DFS marketplace. The paper also proposes regulatory levers that policy makers can use to promote more competition. Looking ahead, a competitive landscape becomes especially important given the rising importance of customer data and the entry of large, multinational technology companies into DFS markets.

Author Matthew Soursourian & Ariadne Plaitakis
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 32 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Competition, digital financial services, emerging economies, customer choice, multinational technology
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Gender Self-Assessment Toolkit for Financial Service Providers Toolkit 2019

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Rural Financial Services: General, Gender, Inclusive finance

UNCDF, under its ASEAN regional and country programme, has developed a toolkit composed of an institutional gender self-assessment tool (GSAT) and a standardised process with facilitator guides to support FSPs in reviewing and evaluating their existing gender approach. This includes identifying the linkages that exist among: a) their business goals and profit; b) effectively serving the women’s market and; c) promoting women’s workforce participation and leadership. The toolkit aims to enhance FSPs’ institutional policies, practices and performance towards - Increasing targeted outreach to women clients through gender-sensitive products and services; and promoting workforce gender diversity in management and leadership.

Guidebook for mobilizing inclusive remittances for rural investment Guideline 2018

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Remittances and payments, Investment, Investment: General

This Guidebook compiles the lessons learned from the implementation of the IFAD-funded Remittances and Diaspora Investment for Rural Development (2014-2018). Its purpose is to provide financial service providers, government agencies, and other stakeholders in migration and rural development with an in-depth understanding of the potential in inclusive remittances, the steps required to launch an inclusive remittances business line, the estimated costs, and the expected financial and social benefits of this emerging business opportunity.

It also serves as a programme document, outlining the implementation process and the results achieved.

Publisher IFAD
Number of Pages 52 pages
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords inclusive remittances, rural investment
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Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Index-Based Livestock Insurance in the North West of South Africa Article English (en)

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This resource appears in: 农村金融服务, Insurance

Rural livelihoods in most developing countries are threatened by climate-related risks such as drought, flood, heat waves, storms, and so on. Although farmers have adopted several adaptation strategies, they have proven less effective than hoped. Hence, index-based livestock insurance, an innovation that significantly assists farmers to acclimatise to climate-related risks, has been proposed; and its adaptability has attracted a notable increase in other African countries. However, the success of its adoption is dependent on the inclination of the farmers to pay for the service.

Accordingly, this study investigates their willingness to pay for index-based livestock insurance and its determinants, and the factors influencing the total livestock units to be insured in the North West province of South Africa. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 277 cattle farmers, drawn randomly from the study area. The contingent valuation method was applied to determine the farmers’ willingness to pay; and only 10.8% were willing to pay. Simultaneously, the Heckit sample selection model was used to analyse the data to identify the factors responsible for farmers’ willingness to pay and total livestock units to insure. The findings revealed that farmer’s experience, age, education, marital status, awareness of insurance and household dependents were statistically significant, and influenced the maximum price R600 ($42, max willingness to pay, WTP) of those who accepted index-based livestock insurance. However, by implication, the study concluded that to adopt index-based livestock insurance in the study area among the livestock farmers, there should be policies to cater for the aforementioned factors.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Oluwaseun Samuel Oduniyi, Michael Akwasi Antwi, Sibongile Sylvia Tekana
Publisher Climate — Open Access Journal
Number of Pages 13
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
South Africa
Keywords Agricultural Risk, Livestock Insurance, Index Insurance, South Africa
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