Policy Advice: General

A policy can be best described as a framework or strategy, giving a broad outline of the direction and proposed development of a particular sector. It is formulated by central government from within a particular ministry to regulate the performance of individual sectors. Policies often focus on creating a strategy which will arrest the decline of a specific sector or redress the imbalances which have occurred as a result of market forces.

The challenge in rural finance is for policies that promote the development of a variety of viable financial institutions that are client oriented, mobilise deposits efficiently and provide access to loans for a broad spectrum of farmers, agribusiness entrepreneurs and other rural clients. Agricultural policies are needed which promote the development of profitable farming and these must be supported by road improvements in rural areas. Governments can use their powers regarding taxation, subsidisation, regulation and enforcement to influence the direction of desired developments. Donors also have the potential to influence policy decisions and can play a key role in improving the enabling environment for effective rural financial intermediation to develop.

You can browse for resources in the different sub-topics listed on the side navigation bar. Here at the top level you can find a selection of documents that illustrate the process of policy-making and the broad issues with which they may be concerned in the field of financial sector development and rural financial markets in particular.

Library Resources

resource title type year resource
IFC Annual Report 2018 : Redefining Development Finance Report 2018

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IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest global development institution focused on the private sector in developing countries. Established in 1956, IFC is owned by 184 member countries, a group that collectively determines our policies. In FY18, IFC invested $23.3 billion, including nearly $11.7 billion mobilized from other investors. Our comprehensive approach helped businesses innovate, build internationally competitive industrial sectors, and create better jobs.

Climate Smart Financing for Rural MSMEs: Enabling Policy Frameworks Report 2017 English (en)

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This document was produced on behalf of the G20 Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) and supported by the BMZ, GIZ and the World Bank Group. This document presents a synthesis of the key lessons and implications of climate change needs and solutions for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in developing countries with an emphasis on the implications for governments and development agencies to consider. It also elaborates policy options for G20 policy makers based on the analysis, evidence from the case studies and the modeling of climate smart MSMEs. These options are designed to help overcome market failures that prevent rural MSMEs’ adaption to climate change and enable them to access climate smart financing.

Climate Smart Financing for Rural MSMEs: Enabling Policy Frameworks  -  English (en)

Author Csaky, Eva., Frei-Oldenburg, A., Hess, U. et al.
Publisher Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion
Number of Pages 60 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Keywords Rural Finance, climate smart financing, Financial Inclusion, Agriculture, Agriculture Risk
Related Resources
SME Finance Paper 2017

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SME Finance paper takes stock of the empirical evidence on the financing challenges faced by small and medium enterprises, especially in developing countries. The paper first discusses the institutional constraints that impede access to finance, including the lack of reliable credit information, lack of suitable collateral, and weak legal institutions. It next highlights firm heterogeneity among small and medium enterprises in accessing finance. The focus is on various policies and reforms that have been shown to be effective in improving access to credit for small and medium enterprises. The paper concludes by highlighting areas where new research could be effective

The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges Report 2017 English (en)

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The present study, which was undertaken for the quadrennial review of FAO’s Strategic Framework and preparation of the Organization’s Medium-Term Plan, 2018–21, lays out key global trends and challenges that will influence food and agriculture in the coming decades.

The trends and challenges analysed here are cause for both hope and concern. Much progress has been made in reducing hunger and poverty and improving food security and nutrition. Gains in productivity and technological advances have contributed to more efficient resource use and improved food safety. But major concerns persist. Some 795 million people still suffer from hunger, and more than two billion from micronutrient deficiencies or forms of overnourishment. In addition, global food security could be in jeopardy, due to mounting pressures on natural resources and to climate change, both of which threaten the sustainability of food systems at large. Planetary boundaries may well be surpassed, if current trends continue.

Our assessment of prevailing trends suggests, therefore, that in order to realize FAO’s vision, transformative change in agriculture and food systems are required worldwide. In FAO’s view, there are 10 key challenges that need to be addressed if we are to succeed in eradicating hunger and poverty, while making agriculture and food systems sustainable. Those challenges include the uneven demographic expansion that will take place in the coming decades, the threats posed by climate change, the intensification of natural disasters and upsurges in transboundary pests and diseases, and the need to adjust to major changes taking place in global food systems.

The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges  -  English (en)

Author Food and Agriculture
Publisher Food and Agriculture
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 180 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agriculture, Development Finance, Innovation
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Africa Agriculture Status Report 2016: Progress Towards Agriculture Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa Report 2017 English (en)

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This year the Africa Agriculture Status Report series is focus on “ Progress towards African Agricultural Transformation”.

The 2016 Agriculture Status Report has as its main objective to: (i) highlight major trends in African agriculture, the drivers of those trends, and the emerging challenges that Africa’s food systems are facing in  the 21st century; (ii) identify policies and programs that can support the movement of Africa’s farming systems from subsistence-oriented towards more commercialized farming systems that can raise productivity, increase incomes, generate employment and contribute to economic growth; (iii) identify areas that enable better targeting of investment resources to increase agriculture productivity; (iv) identify the necessary conditions, appropriate technologies, and institutions that can propel and catalyze African agricultural transformation; (v) examine the past and the present role of public and private sector investment in agriculture, and the success factors that can be scaled up to accelerate transformation; and (vi) explore how agricultural transformation can contribute to solving the reality of rural poverty, low productivity, food insecurity, malnutrition, unemployment, and lower income among the population in countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Africa Agriculture Status Report 2016: Progress Towards Agriculture Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa  -  English (en)

Author Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
Publisher Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
Number of Pages 300 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Agriculture, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Financing
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The State of Food and Agriculture 2017 Report 2017 English (en)

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The State of Food and Agriculture, FAO's major annual flagship publication, aims at bringing to wider audience balanced science-based assessments of important issues in the field of food and agriculture. Each edition of the report contains a comprehensive, yet easily accessible, overview of selected topic of major relevance for rural and agriculture development and for global food security.

One of the greatest challenges today is to end hunger and poverty while making agriculture and food systems sustainable. The challenge is daunting because of continued population growth, profound changes in food demand, and the threat of mass migration of rural youth in search of a better life. This report presents strategies that can leverage the potential of food systems to become the engine of inclusive economic development and rural prosperity in low-income countries. It analyses the structural and rural transformations now under way, and examines the opportunities and challenges they present to millions of small-scale food producers. It shows how an “agroterritorial” planning approach, focused on connecting cities and towns and their surrounding rural areas, combined with agro-industrial and infrastructure development can generate income opportunities throughout the food sector and underpin sustainable and inclusive rural transformation.

SOFA 2017  -  English (en)

Author Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 181 PP.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords rural transformation, territorial approach, linkages, finance
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Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2017 Report 2017 English (en)

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This report gives insights into how laws and regulations affect private sector development for agribusinesses. These globally comparable data and scored indicators encourage regulations that ensure safety and quality of agricultural inputs, goods and services, but are not too costly or burdensome. The goal is to facilitate the operation of agribusinesses and allow them to thrive in a socially and environmentally responsible way, enabling them to provide essential agricultural inputs and services to farmers that could increase their productivity and profits. Regional, income-group and country-specific trends and data observations are presented for 62 countries and across twelve topics: seed, fertilizer, machinery, finance, markets, transport, water, ICT, land, livestock, environmental sustainability and gender. Particularly in chapter 5, EBA finance indicators measure laws and regulations that affect access to financial services for farmers and agribusinesses.

Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2017  -  English (en)

Author World Bank
Publisher The World Bank Group
Washington DC, USA
Number of Pages 294 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agribusiness, enabling environment, Agriculture, Agricultural Finance, finance
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Agricultural Policies in Costa Rica Document 2017 English (en)

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Costa Rica’s strong agricultural sector is underpinned by the country’s political stability, robust economic growth and high levels of human development.  The sector has achieved significant export success, yet raising productivity and staying competitive in world markets will require efforts to address bottlenecks in infrastructure, innovation and access to financial services.  Maximising Costa Rica’s comparative advantage in higher-value niche products will depend upon more efficient services to agriculture, including better implementation of programmes, improved co-ordination among institutions, and reduced bureaucracy. While overall protection for agriculture is relatively low compared to OECD countries, it is nonetheless highly distorting to production and trade. Managing the transition to scheduled liberalisation presents an opportunity to reform costly policies, and to implement an alternative policy package with new investments in innovation, productivity and diversification, supported by transition assistance where needed. Costa Rican agriculture’s vulnerability to extreme weather events is expected to worsen with climate change, and even while the country is among global leaders in environmental protection, sustainable development and climate change mitigation, further adaptation efforts will be necessary.

Agricultural Policies in Costa Rica  -  English (en)

El estado mundial de la agricultura y la alimentación 2016: cambio climático, agricultura y seguridad alimentaria Guideline 2016

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El informe de la FAO titulado “el estado mundial de la agricultura y la alimentación 2016: cambio climático, agricultura y seguridad alimentaria” se genera para ayudar a poner en práctica el Acuerdo de Paris de 2015 sobre cambio climático señalando las estrategias, oportunidades de financiación y limitantes de la información existente, así como se presentan algunas posibles políticas y estrategias a seguir para superar los obstáculos en la implementación del acuerdo.

Author FAO
Publisher FAO
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 28
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords agricultura
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E-agriculture Strategy Guide Report 2016 English (en)

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E-agriculture, or ICTs in agriculture, is about designing, developing and applying innovative ways to use ICTs in the rural domain, with a primary focus on agriculture. E-agriculture offers a wide range of solutions to some agricultural challenges.

Setting in place a national e-agriculture strategy is an essential first step for any country planning on using ICTs for agriculture. While the need for e-agriculture strategies is acknowledged by many stakeholders, most countries have yet to adopt a strategic approach in making the best use of ICT developments in agriculture. E-agriculture strategies will help to rationalize both financial and human resources, and address holistically the ICT opportunities and challenges of the agricultural sector while generating new revenues and improving the lives of people in rural communities. It will also help ensure that the goals of national agricultural plans are achieved.

This publication provides a framework for countries in developing their national e-agriculture strategies. These strategies would include an e-agriculture vision, an action plan, and a framework by which results can be monitored and evaluated. Like all strategies and plans, the outcomes of these processes are not static and changes in a country’s strategic context will require a dynamic approach to updating the strategy so that it remains relevant.

Adopting a national approach to e-agriculture will result in improved livelihoods and incomes for people living in rural communities.

E-agriculture holds great potential in promoting sustainable agriculture while protecting the environment and finding an effective way to feed the world’s population.

 

E-agriculture Strategy Guide  -  English (en)

Author the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Telecommunication Union
Publisher the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Telecommunication Union
Number of Pages 222 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agriculture, e-agriculture, Ict
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Revue sur l’efficacité du développement : édition 2016 Report 2016 French (fr)

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D’ici 2025, l’Afrique entend nourrir sa population – en croissance rapide – avec sa propre production. De plus, le reste du monde aura besoin de l’aide de l’Afrique pour nourrir deux milliards de personnes supplémentaires dans la génération à venir. Il est donc crucial de faire les bons investissements aujourd’hui pour libérer le potentiel énorme des exploitations agricoles et de l’agro-industrie en Afrique.

La Banque africaine de développement (BAD), l’un des principaux investisseurs dans le domaine de l’agriculture sur le continent, remplit ses objectifs quant au déploiement de 5,5 milliards de dollars sur cinq ans jusqu’en 2015, comme le révèle l’édition 2016 de la Revue sur l’efficacité du développement qui paraît aujourd’hui.

Un bref aperçu des résultats clés de la BAD : la Banque a formé trois millions de personnes sur l’utilisation de meilleures pratiques agricoles, mis en service 20 000 marchés et espaces de stockage, construit 4 000 kilomètres de routes de desserte, fourni 150 000 prêts en microcrédits, et établi des systèmes de gestion de l’eau sur 181 000 hectares de terres agricoles.

Pour lire le rapport sur le site de la BAD  -  French (fr)

Author Banque africaine de développement
Publisher Groupe de la Banque africaine de développement
Abidjan
Number of Pages 60
Primary Language French (fr)
Region / Country Africa
Côte d'Ivoire
Keywords agriculture en Afrique, Banque africaine de développement
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Rural Development Report 2016: fostering inclusive rural transformation Report 2016 English (en)

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The report looks at how to bring rural people into the economic mainstream and how to transform rural areas so that development is not only inclusive but also socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. This report provides a thorough analysis of the complex picture, it examines 62 countries and looks at their development in the context of rural transformation. It also demonstrates the interconnectedness between rural and urban development. The report seeks to answer three key questions: what are the different pathways of structural and rural transformation in developing countries? How do the different pathways affect rural poverty reduction and social and economic inclusion? What can policy makers do to stimulate and support inclusive rural transformation?

Rural Development Report 2016: fostering inclusive rural transformation  -  English (en)

Documentación y evaluación de resultados del ejercicio piloto “Municipio sin efectivo” en Concepción – Antioquia Document 2016

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El documento resume el estudio de caso de la estrategia de inclusión financiera a partir de la realización de un piloto con el fin de lograr que los habitantes de Concepción- Antioquia, hicieran uso de medios electrónicos cotidianamente y generen así un ecosistema donde se reduzca el uso del efectivo. La documentación y evaluación del municipio sin efectivo deja una serie de lecciones: i) tanto en el mercado privado de bienes y servicios como en la provisión de servicios públicos existe un creciente reconocimiento de la importancia de involucrar a los actores o clientes finales en el diseño del producto o servicio que se ofrece. ii) las recomendaciones de esta categoría buscan alinear las acciones, los actores y los tiempos del proyecto con sus objetivos, iii) la entidad que lidere un proyecto de inclusión financiera a través de reducción del efectivo debe estar muy bien organizada internamente. 

Rapport de la FAO 2016 - La situation mondiale de l’alimentation et de l’agriculture - Changement climatique, agriculture et sécurité alimentaire Guideline 2016 French (fr)

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L’Accord de Paris, adopté en décembre 2015, est un nouveau départ dans l’action mondiale visant à stabiliser le climat avant qu’il ne soit trop tard. Il reconnaît toute l’importance de la sécurité alimentaire dans la réaction internationale au changement climatique, comme en témoignent les contributions prévues, en terme d’adaptation et d’atténuation, de nombreux pays, qui placent l’agriculture au premier plan.
Afin d’aider à traduire ces plans en actions concrètes, le présent rapport met en lumière les stratégies, les modes de financement possibles et les besoins en données et en informations, et brosse un tableau des politiques de transformation et des institutions qui peuvent faire tomber les obstacles à la mise en oeuvre.

SOFA  -  French (fr)

Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2016 Report 2016 English (en)

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Building on the progress report published in November 2014, Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2016: Comparing regulatory good practices provides a tool for policymakers to identify and analyze legal barriers for the business of agriculture and to quantify transaction costs of dealing with government regulations. The report presents the main results for 40 countries, for the first time using indicator scores to showcase good practices among countries in different stages of agricultural development. It also presents interesting results on the relationship between efficiency and quality of regulations, discriminatory practices in the laws and whether regulatory information is accessible. Regional, income-group and country-specific trends and data observations are presented on six topics: seed, fertilizer, machinery, finance, markets and transport. The report also discusses the continued development of several topics which will be added in future reports: information and communication technology, land, water, livestock, gender and environmental sustainability. 

Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2016  -  English (en)

Author The World Bank
Publisher The World Bank
Washington, DC
Number of Pages 192 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agriculture, enabling environment, Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance
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Making Climate Finance Work in Agriculture Paper 2016 English (en)

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This discussion paper was produced as a background documentfor the 2016 FAO State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) report. It was produced through desk research and analysis of existing agricultural and climate finance literature. Moreover, qualitative interviews with key experts representing different stakeholder groups in the agriculture, climate, and financial sectors were conducted to inform the potential opportunities and innovations that should be further explored to make climate finance work for agriculture. Finally, a collection of supporting case studies were provided by different stakeholders to showcase some of the most successful and innovative examples already being implemented in the climate finance community.It is important to note that this is a discussion paper that aims to explore the intersection between climate and agriculture finance by generating dialogue. Hence, the paper explores a relatively new field and proposes innovative interventions that either are being tested or could be tested to increase the leverage of private capital and strengthen the links between financial institutions on the one hand and smallholder farmers and SMEs on the other. The objective of the paper is to generate discussion around this topic and, therefore, no blanket recommendations or descriptive interventions are proposed. A growing population and changing diets are driving up the demand for food. Production is struggling to keep up as crop yields level off in many parts of the world, ocean health declines, and natural resources— including soils, water and biodiversity—are stretched dangerously thin. Climate change is critically interrelated with agriculture. On the one hand, agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change. This paper proposes three different avenues to use climate finance to achieve this goal: a) Designing and adapting innovative mechanisms to leverage additional sources of capital, from both public and private sources, that can be directed towards climate smartinvestments in the agriculture sector. b) Identifying entry points for directing climate finance into agriculture and for linking FIs to smallholders and agricultural SMEs, including through capacity building and technical assistance. c) Providing technical assistance to increase investments in agriculture.Finally, this paper presents several suggestions to contribute to the achievement of the ideas presented in this paper, including the need for increased knowledge on innovative financial instruments and mechanisms, bridging information gaps, identifying opportunities, promoting dialogue and cooperation, and designing an action plan to move this agenda forward.

Making Climate Finance Work in Agriculture  -  English (en)

Informe sobre el desarrollo rural 2016 Guideline 2016

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El Fondo Internacional para el Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA o IFAD por sus siglas en inglés) ha lanzado también su “informe sobre el desarrollo rural 2016” en el concluye principalmente que para erradicar verdaderamente la pobreza, los gobiernos deben adaptar sus políticas e inversiones para generar una transformación que beneficie al sector rural. En palabras del presidente de FIDA “Las conclusiones de este informe son un llamado de atención para cualquier persona que se solidariza con la apremiante situación que padecen los niños, las mujeres y los hombres más pobres de nuestro planeta”.    

Author FIDA
Publisher FIDA
Roma, Italy
Number of Pages 78
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global
Keywords informe sobre el desarrollo rural 2016, FIDA, ifad
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OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025 report Report 2016 English (en)

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The OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025 provides an assessment of prospects for the coming decade of the national, regional and global agricultural commodity markets across 41 countries and 12 regions, including OECD countries (European Union as a region) and other key agricultural producers, such as India, China, Brazil, the Russian Federation and Argentina among others. This year's special feature focuses on the prospects and challenges of the agricultural sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. This edition marks the twelfth year of partnership between the two organisations.

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025 report  -  English (en)

Author OECD, FAO
Publisher OECD, FAO
Number of Pages 136 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agriculture, Commodities, Commodity
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Kazakhstan Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment 2016 English (en)

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Agriculture is among the most risk-prone sectors in the economies of Central Asia. Production shocks from weather, pests and diseases and adverse movements in agricultural product and input prices not only impact farmers and agri-business firms, but can also strain government finances. Some of these risks are small and localized and can be managed by producers. Others are the result of more severe, exogenous shocks outside agriculture that require a broader response. Failure to respond adequately to these more severe risks leads to a perpetual cycle of ‘shock-recovery-shock’ which reinforces poverty traps and compromises long-term growth. A broad-based program to improve livestock productivity is recommended to strengthen the resilience of livestock production systems and rangeland use in Kazakhstan. Proposed interventions include measures to: (i) reverse degradation of water, soil and vegetation cover; (ii) safeguard the long-term viability of rangeland ecosystems, while ensuring sustainable access to grazing land; and (iii) strengthen livestock services (veterinary, animal health, feed and fodder supply, destocking, water and grazing access, and weather and market information). These measures will enable farmers to manage their resources better, to respond to climate and market signals and to protect their resource base in times of drought. The recommendations developed under these three solution areas continue the underlying emphasis on mitigation as the foundation for risk management. They also highlight the mutually reinforcing benefits of measures to improve crop and livestock productivity for both risk management and sector growth.

Kazakhstan Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment  -  English (en)

Author Broka,S., Giertz,A. et al.
Publisher World Bank
Washington, DC.
Number of Pages 201 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Asia
Kazakhstan
Keywords Agriculture, Risk Management, Agricultural Risk, agricultural risk management
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African Development Report 2015 Report 2016 English (en)

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The African Development Report 2015 highlights the intermediating role of various forms of inequality that limit the transformation of Africa’s growth into prosperity for all.

 

According to the African Development Report 2015 (ADR); African economies have grown substantially over the past decade, but  poverty and inequality reduction has remained less responsive to growth successes across the continent. The report titled “Growth-poverty and inequality nexus: overcoming barriers to sustainable development” was released in July 2016.

Unequal access to economic resources and opportunities is mirrored in the continent’s high income inequality, gender gaps in earnings and opportunities, the rural-urban divide, youth under-employment and in the limited priority given to key poverty-reducing sectors like agriculture, agro-industries, and manufacturing. As a result, millions of Africans, especially women and youth, have been left behind.

This 2015 edition of the ADR Report offers analysis, synthesis and recommendations that are relevant to how growth affects poverty and inequality; and how Africa can overcome contemporary and future sustainable development challenges.

African Development Report 2015  -  English (en)

Publisher African Development Bank Group
Côte d’Ivoire
Number of Pages 270 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Agriculture, Agricultural Development, Development
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Estrategia de Alianza con la Republica del Paraguay: años fiscales 2015-18 Book 2015

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El documento es un informe de situación que sintetiza la estrategia de apoyo y alianzas del Grupo Banco Mundial con la República del Paraguay. En ese marco, resalta las inversiones del IFC en el sector agroindustrial, la logística y el sector financiero de dicho país. Estas inversiones alcanzaron a más de 30,000 agricultores y garantizaron flujos comerciales de $us 450 millones para quienes están insertos en este sector.

Author Grupo Banco Mundial
Publisher Grupo Banco Mundial
Washington D.C., USA
Number of Pages 105
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Paraguay
Keywords Inversiones, Sector Financiero, Paraguay
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Marco estratégico de mediano plazo de cooperación de la FAO en agricultura familiar en América Latina y el Caribe Document 2015

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El documento presenta los elementos conceptuales  para  el  desarrollo  de  un  Marco  Estratégico  de  Mediano  Plazo  de  Cooperación  de la FAO en Agricultura Familiar en América Latina y el Caribe. El proceso de elaboración de dicho marco está dentro  de la  planificación  por  resultados  que  actualmente implementa la  FAO  como  parte  de  su  proceso  de  reforma y por lo tanto identifica  resultados  regionales  concretos  que  se esperan  lograr como producto  de  su  puesta  en  marcha  en  el  ámbito  de  la  Agricultura  Familiar.  

Author FAO
Publisher FAO
Number of Pages 45
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agricultura familiar
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Instituciones, leyes y programas en el sector agropecuario en México Document 2015

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El trabajo da a conocer los cambios y consecuencias de las principales políticas, planes y programas institucionales adoptadas por el gobierno mexicano entre los años 1900 los 2000 en el sector agropecuario. Los resultados analizados muestran que la aplicación de políticas neoliberales, se  tradujo en el retiro del apoyo estatal casi en la totalidad del proceso productivo, lo cual significa que el Gobierno tiene una participación nula en asistencia técnica, capacitación y crédito. El documento sostiene que las modificaciones realizadas al marco legal permitieron  el dominio de capitales extranjeros en la actividad agropecuaria mexicana y que la desprolijidad en la ejecución de los instrumentos de política económica del gobierno posibilitó el control de los mercados nacionales y de la producción de alimentos desde el exterior.

Author Zagoya, Joaquín
Number of Pages 16
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global
Mexico
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Evolución del sector agropecuario en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana, 1990-2013 Document 2015

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El documento presenta un análisis sobre la evolución del sector agropecuario en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana entre 1990 y 2013, asimismo presenta los principales determinantes de la producción agropecuaria en la región y de sus principales productos de agro-exportación. El trabajo se sustenta en estadísticas actualizadas, confiables y comparables del sector agropecuario y rural, que permitan realizar un diagnóstico regional y formular a partir de ello políticas y estrategias regionales para la toma de decisiones. Entre sus principales conclusiones sorprende la pequeña proporción del crédito y del gasto público dirigido al sector agropecuario, considerando que se trata de una actividad que emplea a la cuarta parte de la población.

Author Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe
Publisher Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe
Number of Pages 143
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, Central America
Dominican Republic
Keywords sector agropecuario, Centro América
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Retos del sector agropecuario en Colombia: sostenibilidad para la competitividad Document 2015

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El documento sintetiza las oportunidades y retos que el sector agropecuario colombiano tiene para mejorar su competitividad, aumentar la productividad del campo y reducir las emisiones de GEI, la deforestación, el impacto a los ecosistemas naturales y aumentar la resiliencia del campo a los efectos del cambio climático. Para ello analiza iniciativas intersectoriales en territorios de interés como alternativa para implementar un paquete que aborde políticas, incentivos, programas de apoyo técnico y otros mecanismos como el financiamiento para promover la producción sostenible y alcanzar metas a escala regional según las característicasde cada territorio. 

Author María Teresa Becerra, María Helena Cendales, Giampiero Renzoni

Number of Pages 8
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, South America
Colombia
Keywords Competitividad rural, productividad rural, política pública
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Agriculture and adaptation to climate change: the role of insurance in risk management: the case of Colombia Document 2015 English (en)

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Insurance can potentially play an important  role in climate change adaptation for rural households in developing countries as part of the overall climate change adaptation strategy. However, agricultural insurance markets have many market failures that inhibit their full development. In Colombia these market failures, namely information asymmetries and high transaction costs, are amplified by the country’s difficult topography, poor infrastructure, and history of rural violence. Even though the government provides premium subsidies to increase coverage, it is still very low and important crops and small producers are not covered. This paper analyzes in detail the market constraints on the development of the agricultural insurance market in Colombia and provides recommendations so that it can fulfill its potential as a risk management tool in the country.

Agriculture and adaptation to climate change: the role of insurance in risk management: the case of Colombia  -  English (en)

Enabling Environment for Agricultural Growth and Competitiveness Paper 2014 English (en)

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The key contribution of this report lies in developing a typology to structure the components of the enabling environment for agricultural growth and competitiveness, and in constructing an illustrative Agricultural Growth Enabling Index (AGEI) to summarise a wide array of available information in a coherent manner. The construction of the preliminary AGEI is based on four blocks with 40% of the weight on agriculture/rural factors and 20% each on broader economy-wide governance, capital availability and market operation. The AGEI can be used to provide across-country comparisons or single-country evaluations using the index itself or its components. It allows the decomposition within each main block to show the relative strength and weaknesses of each country across various sub-indices. It has been applied here to a selected set of twenty emerging and developing countries. The preliminary results demonstrate that the AGEI brings together information relevant to the enabling environment for agricultural growth and competitiveness, and which is largely consistent with more in-depth studies of the selected countries. While constrained in some respects, the AGEI appears to be the first index completed with this objective. Further expansion and refinement of the included set of indicators to better reflect key determinants of agriculture’s enabling environment would help provide an important input into better policy decisions.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Diaz-Bonilla, E.; Orden, D.; Kwieciński, A.
Publisher OECD
Paris, France
Number of Pages 77 pp.
Volume / Issue# N°67
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Designing Warehouse Receipt Legislation: Regulatory options and recent trends Paper 2014 English (en)

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This publication provides guidance for countries seeking to develop or reform existing warehouse receipt legislation. It highlights the importance of core elements of a good enabling legislation, while suggesting flexibility to accommodate country specificities. A supportive legal framework is a common precondition for confidence in and acceptance of warehouse receipts for producers, credit providers and market participants. 

Designing Warehouse Receipt Legislation: Regulatory options and recent trends  -  English (en)

Author Philine Wehling and Bill Garthwaite
Publisher The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 173 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Warehouse Receipt Finance, Warehouse Receipts, warehouse receipt financing, warehouse receipt legislation, Access To Credit, Access To Finance
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Inclusive Growth: An Imperative for African Agriculture Report 2014 English (en)

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The African Development Bank’s (AfDB) Agriculture and Agro-industry (OSAN) and Development Research Departments have jointly produced the report entitled “Inclusive Growth: An Imperative for African Agriculture”.

The publication is part of the Bank’s efforts to assess and document recent lessons and experiences emerging from its long years of assistance to agriculture and agro-industry and the importance of the sector for agriculture-led growth and food security in Africa.

The principal objectives of the report are multifold:

  • To review the importance of agriculture in order to achieve inclusive growth on the African continent given the context of expected population growth as well as increasing global demand for agricultural commodities;
  • Facilitate an understanding of the requirements of the concepts of inclusive and green growth in agriculture and agro-industry;
  • Review efforts made by the AfDB in responding to the main pillars of inclusive growth through its support for African agriculture; and
  • To contribute to the development of a framework and identification of key areas which drive inclusive growth and transformative agriculture in Africa.

Furthermore, the publication highlights some strategic interventions corresponding to the identified areas and suggests concrete recommendations.

Inclusive Growth: An Imperative for African Agriculture  -  English (en)

Author Kanu, B., Salami, O.A., Numasawa, K.
Publisher African Development Bank
Number of Pages 94 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agriculture, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Investment
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Sistema nacional de crédito agropecuario: Colombia Paper 2014

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El documento plantea los lineamientos que deberán guiar la reforma del sistema de financiamiento agropecuario colombiano, cuyos objetivos son: i) contar con un Sistema Financiero Agropecuario que represente la realidad del sector, contando con la participación activa de actores públicos y privados; ii) contar una oferta dinámica de recursos e instrumentos financieros para los pequeños productores y iii) desarrollar una política integral de gestión de riesgo. Para ello presenta y los ejes estratégicos de la propuesta de reforma, sus antecedentes así como la evolución y los principales cambios en el Sistema Nacional de Crédito Agropecuario – SNCA, un diagnóstico de la evolución del crédito agropecuario en Colombia y de los instrumentos de administración de riesgos para el sector rural y finalmente, un plan de acción para cada uno de ejes estratégicos de la reforma.

Author Dirección de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible DDRS-FINAGRO
Publisher Dirección de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible DDRS-FINAGRO
Number of Pages 64
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Colombia
Keywords Financiamiento agropecuario
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La Gestión de Riesgos Climáticos Catastróficos para el Sector Agropecuario en México Book 2014

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El documento describe dos estrategias de participación gubernamental basadas en el uso de herramientas financieras para la gestión del riesgo agropecuario. Por un lado la promoción del uso de seguros individuales mediante la apli­cación de recursos fiscales y, por el otro, un programa especializado para la canalización de recursos, denominado “Componente para la Atención a Desastres Naturales en el Sector Agropecuario y Pesquero” (CADENA) que favorece la adquis­ición de seguros catastróficos de contratación masiva por parte de las Entidades Federativas y del Gobierno Federal. En el documento se muestra cómo estos componentes se han convertido en un mo­tor del desarrollo del seguro agropecuario, es necesario reforzar la ca­pacitación del personal de las Entidades Federativas involucrado en la adquisición de seguros, favoreciendo un análisis racional y documentado de la relación amenaza-vulnerabilidad de la actividad agropecuaria.

Author Cabestany, Hernandez y Celaya del Toro
Publisher Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura; Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación
Number of Pages 100
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Mexico
Keywords Gestion de riesgos climáticos
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Invertir en la población rural en México Article 2014

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El artículo se enfoca en la pobreza rural en México y en la intervención del FIDA en este ámbito. En su análisis inicial el documento identifica como causas de la pobreza rural en México  la falta de acceso a servicios básicos como salud, educación, saneamiento y vivienda, y a recursos como la tierra, la tecnología y el crédito, que permitirían a los pequeños agricultores mejorar sus niveles de productividad e ingresos.

Author Fondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA)
Publisher Fondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA)
Number of Pages 8
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, Central America
Mexico
Keywords Pobreza Rural, Mexico
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Implementing agriculture for development : World Bank Group agriculture action plan 2013-2015 Report 2013 English (en)

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The future needs an agricultural system that produces about 50 percent more food to feed the world's 9 billion people by 2050; that provides adequate nutrition; that substantially raises the levels and resilience of incomes and employment for most of the world's poor, 75 percent of whom live in rural areas and most of whom rely on agriculture for their livelihoods; that provides environmental services such as absorbing carbon, managing watersheds, and preserving biodiversity; and that uses finite land and water resources more efficiently. It can be done with more and better investment in the sector, with more attention to reducing gender inequality in access to resources and opportunities, and to addressing cross-sectoral linkages between agricultural actions and outcomes for economic growth, livelihoods, the environment, nutrition, and public health. Such linkages were addressed in depth in the World Development Report (WDR) 2008, Agriculture for Development. More recently, the already-urgent need for action in agriculture has been amplified by recurrent spikes in global food prices, their lasting impact on poverty and nutrition, and the associated risk of social and political tensions. And for each degree Celsius of global warming, the potential grain crop yield loss is about 5 percent. Investment returns in the sector can be high. Income gains in agriculture are no more costly to achieve than income gains in other sectors, and the associated growth originating from agriculture has been two to four times more effective at reducing poverty than growth originating from other sectors.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Townsend, Robert F; Ceccacci, Iride; Cooke, Sanjiva; Constantine, Mark; Moses, Gene
Publisher The World Bank
Washington, DC; USA
Number of Pages 132 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Global Development Horizons 2013: Capital for the Future Report 2013 English (en)

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The report titled “Capital for the future: saving and investment in an interdependent world” aims to build scenarios for the global economy with special focus given to saving and investment.  It finds that developing economies are fast becoming major investors in the world economy, and by 2030 will account for more than 60 cents of every dollar invested. Future trends in investment, saving, and capital flows will affect economic conditions from the household level to the global macroeconomic level, with implications not only for national governments but also for international institutions and policy coordination. The findings presented by this report are particularly significant to policymakers, think tanks, global investors and financiers.

Document  -  English (en)

Author The World Bank
Publisher The World Bank
Washington, DC
Number of Pages 170 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Tracking Africa’s Progress in Figures Brief 2013 English (en)

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African economies have sustained unprecedented rates of growth, driven mainly by strong domestic demand, improved macroeconomic management, a growing middle class, and increased political stability. As the continent continues to evolve, the African Development Bank’s Tracking Africa’s Progress in Figures publication looks at the key megatrends of the last few decades that will shape Africa’s future.

Document  -  English (en)

Author AFDB
Publisher African Development Bank
Number of Pages 39 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Smallholders, food security, and the environment Report 2013 English (en)

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This report aims to improve understanding among policymakers and practitioners – together with those influencing and making decisions in relevant business sectors – of the relationships between smallholders, food security and the environment. It leads to the conclusion that, with targeted support, smallholder farmers can transform the rural landscape and unleash a new and sustainable agricultural revolution.

The report has three messages:

KEY MESSAGE 1: Smallholders form a vital part of the global agricultural community, yet they are often neglected

KEY MESSAGE 2: Smallholder productivity in particular depends on well-functioning ecosystems

KEY MESSAGE 3: Growth in agricultural production to meet rising global needs using prevailing farming practices is unsustainable – a transformation is needed

Document  -  English (en)

Author The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Publisher IFAD
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 52 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Smallholder Integration in Changing Food Markets Report 2013 English (en)

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Recent increases in the levels and volatility of food prices have created significant challenges to efforts to reduce levels of food insecurity both at national and household levels. As a result, significant political attention has been given to the promotion of improvements in food staples productivity in developing countries, both to offset the rapidly increasing costs of food imports, and to stimulate increased incomes and hence food security status at the household level.

A central focus of these initiatives has been to develop and advocate mechanisms that will result in increased levels of production by smallholder producers through the adoption of productivity — enhancing technology underpinned by improved research and development, facilitated access to critical inputs and production — related risk reduction measures. Less attention has been given to the significant heterogeneity of smallholder producers, both in terms of their access to the productive assets required to be able to increase production and, perhaps more importantly, in terms of their willingness to increase production for sale.

A key message of this report is that without better understanding the determinants of smallholders’ participation in agricultural markets, and formulating appropriate measures to facilitate improved participation, initiatives seeking to promote the adoption of productivity enhancing technology by smallholder producers are likely to have limited success.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Arias, P., Hallam, D., Krivonos, E., Morrison, J.
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 48 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Enabling environments for agribusiness and agro-industries development Paper 2013 English (en)

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This document is intended as a contribution to advancing knowledge on enabling environments for the development of agrifood value chains. It draws primarily from workshops organized by FAO in collaboration with other United Nations agencies and development partners between 2006 and 2008. FAO workshops on enabling environments for agribusiness and agro-industrial development were held in four regions – Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia – with in-depth studies of 20 countries. The document also benefits from work undertaken by FAO and partners as part of the technical preparation for a series of global and regional agro-industry fora, held in India, China, Peru, Nigeria and Lebanon between 2008 and 2011. In all of these events, business climates were highlighted as an area of strong relevance for promoting investment and developing agro-enterprises.

This study also considers the roles of the public sector and international organizations in promoting business climate reforms, and discusses the possibility of developing specific country-level indicators for agribusiness and agro-industries enabling environments. It concludes by calling attention to the fact that although business climates that are conducive to investments in agribusiness and agro- industries are important, they cannot by themselves guarantee that such investments will be forthcoming. In addition to efforts to improve business climates, there is also need to ensure that returns on investments are sufficient to compensate for any perceived constraints on enabling environments that increase risks and add to the costs of doing business. In other words, policies and strategies that aim to increase agro-based investments must go beyond a pure emphasis on business climates, considering as well elements that affect profitability and, in consequence, investors’ perceptions of risk/return ratios.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Gabor Konig Carlos A. da Silva and Nomathemba Mhlanga
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 61 pp.
Volume / Issue# 1
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Influence of Outflow of Rural Funds on Financial Support for Agriculture Paper 2013

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Since the reform and opening-up, rural finance has made a huge contribution to rural economic development. However, with commercialization reform of financial institutions, the conflict between outflow of large funds and shortage of funds for rural economic development becomes prominent, leading to serious degradation of agricultural support function of rural finance. From the perspective of outflow of ruralfunds, this paper analyzes the problem of "deviation from agriculture" of rural financial busines, and derives the conclusion that it is necessary and urgent to restor eagricultural support function of rural finance. Then, it discuses restoration path for agricultural support function of rural finance. Finaly, it comes up with some effective paths in accordance with existing problems in agricultural support function of rural finance.

Author Deng, J., Luo, W.
Number of Pages 5 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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The importance of scaling up for agricultural and rural development and a success story of Peru Article 2013 English (en)

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The thesis of this article is that governments of countries that plan their agricultural and rural development programmes on a large scale – typically covering the entire agriculture sector and including all or most of the important ingredients for agricultural growth and rural development – do better in terms of agricultural production and reduction of rural poverty and hunger than do country governments that do not invest broadly and at scale in such development. The reason, for most low-income countries, is that agriculture still constitutes the most important economic sector, uses the most labour and contains the majority of the poor, who are also the majority of the hungry. Government action to stimulate agriculture at scale pays off by increasing food production and rural incomes. Donors that contribute to government programmes at scale and for the long term thus contribute more to this success than donors that do not operate at scale, and that have short-term objectives or invest in small-scale projects. IFAD’s experience in Peru, in which it supported the Government in scaling up agricultural and rural development investments in poor areas of the Peruvian Andes over a period of 20 years, has paid off spectacularly in terms of poverty reduction. The Peruvian example points to two critical ingredients: government commitment to operating at scale and donor willingness to support governments in doing this.

Document  -  English (en)

Author Kevin Cleaver
Publisher IFAD
Rome, Italyif
Number of Pages 20 pp.
Volume / Issue# 4
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Peru
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Financial Access 2012: Getting to a More Comprehensive Picture Paper 2013

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Financial Access 2012 builds on the work done in Financial Access 2009 and Financial Access 2010 to provide new data on financial access. Using eight years of data (2004–2011) from the IMF’s Financial Access Survey (FAS) in combination with other relevant data, Financial Access 2012 further contributes to measuring and analyzing the current state of financial inclusion. This year’s report is an important step in leveraging the FAS data to provide an up-to-date and in-depth view of the state of financial inclusion today, com- plementing other supply- and demand-side data initiatives in data collection and analysis. Available data have expanded every year, though they remain far from complete.

Author Oya Pinar Ardic, Kathryn Imboden, and Alexia Latortue
Publisher CGAP, IFC
Number of Pages 48 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Sustainable agricultural productivity growth and bridging the gap for small-family farms Paper 2012 English (en)

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Global agriculture will face multiple challenges over the coming decades. It must produce more food to feed an increasingly affluent and growing world population that will demand a more diverse diet, contribute to overall development and poverty alleviation in many developing countries, confront increased competition for alternative uses of finite land and water resources, adapt to climate change, and contribute to preserving biodiversity and restoring fragile ecosystems. Climate change will bring higher average temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events, multiplying the threats to sustainable food security. Addressing these challenges requires co-ordinated responses from the public and private sectors and civil society that will need to be adapted to the specific circumstances of different types of farmers in countries at all levels of development. The recommendations provided are broadly of two types: specific actions that can contribute in some way to improving productivity growth or sustainable resource use (whether building on existing initiatives or suggesting new activities) and more general proposals that may not be actionable as presented but that serve to highlight areas for priority attention. This report also invites G20 countries to engage in a medium, to long-term, analysis-based peer review of policies fostering sustainable productivity growth, which would identify specific constraints and opportunities, beginning with their own food and agriculture sectors. In addition to possible benefits to participating countries, a peer review process could contribute to the identification of best policies and best policy packages to achieve the widely held aim of sustainably improving productivity of the global food and agriculture system. While such an initiative is proposed to and for G20 countries, it could have much wider application to interested countries.

Document  -  English (en)

Author World Bank
Publisher The World Bank
Washington, DC; USA
Number of Pages 89 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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2012 Global Food Policy Report Report 2012 English (en)

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Reflecting the expertise and experience of IFPRI researchers and other leading food policy experts, the report considers sever crucial questions:

  • Where is agricultural productivity growing and why, and what are the implications for the global food supply?
  • How has sustainable development evolved and is a green economy far behind?
  • What is needed for gender considerations to become an integral part of agricultural and rural development?
  • How can agriculture offer meaningful jobs to the growing number of young people in Africa?
  • What directions are US and EU agricultural policies taking, and how do they diverge?
  • What are IFPRI's scenarios for how Brazil, China, and India will influence global food security to 2050?
Document  -  English (en)

Author IFPRI
Publisher IFPRI
Number of Pages 142 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 Report 2011 English (en)

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The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 comes out as the world emerges from the most significant financial and economic crisis in generations. While many advanced economies are still struggling to get their economies back on a solid footing, Africa has, for the most part, weathered the storm remarkably well.

This year’s Africa Competitiveness Report is the third in a series within a partnership among three institutions deeply committed to Africa’s development. Following the first joint report in 2007, the World Economic Forum, the World Bank, and the African Development Bank have come together once again to underscore the importance of discussing the challenges of competitiveness in Africa. Each institution approaches the topic in its own way, and together—when combined in this volume— they provide the reader with a rich set of complementary views about how to expand opportunities and increase productivity and growth in Africa.

This joint publication looks at different factors that affect competitiveness in Africa. By competitiveness it is meant all of the factors, institutions, and policies that determine a country’s level of productivity. The productivity of an economy, in turn, sets the sustainable level and path of prosperity that a country can achieve. In other words, more competitive economies tend to be able to produce higher levels of income for their citizens. A country’s productivity level also determines the rates of return obtained by investment. Because the rates of return are the fundamental drivers of growth rates, a more competitive economy is one that is likely to grow faster over the medium to long term.

Also included are detailed competitiveness profiles for several African countries, providing a comprehensive summary of their competitive strengths and weaknesses. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011 is an invaluable tool for policymakers, business strategists, and other key stakeholders, as well as essential reading for all those with an interest in the region.

The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011  -  English (en)

Author the World Economic Forum, the World Bank, and the African Development Bank.
Publisher The World Economic Forum
Number of Pages 216 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Financing Africa: Through the crisis and beyond Book 2011 English (en)

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This book, a  joint  effort  of  the  African  Development  Bank,  the  German  Federal  Ministry  of  Economic  Cooperation  and  Development,  and  the  World Bank, demonstrates that Africa  is  making  progress  in  relaxing  these  constraints. New players and products, enabled by new technologies and business models, have helped broaden access to financial services, especially savings and payment products. Critically, African finance has been stable for quite a while now; after a peak of banking crises in the 1980s, there have been few systemic banking crises since then. Despite the recent global financial crisis, banks in Africa are, on average, well capitalized and liquid. At the  same  time,  Africa  faces  persistent  but  not  insurmountable  challenges, namely its small scale, informality, volatility, and poor governance. Many firms and most households are still excluded from access to financial services, especially long term  finance.  Infrastructure  financing  needs  remain  largely  unmet.  Agricultural  finance  has  been  ignored  by  commercial  financiers  for  being  too  high-cost  and  high-risk, aggravated by the same challenges enumerated above.

Financing  Africa:  Through  the  Crisis  and  Beyond is  a  call  to  arms  for  a  new approach to Africa’s financial sector development. First, policy makers should focus on increasing competition within and outside the banking sector to foster innovation.  This  implies  a  more  open  regulatory  mindset,  possibly  reversing  the  usual  timeline of legislation-regulation-innovation for new players and products. It also implies expanding traditional infrastructure, such as credit registries and payment systems beyond banks. Second, the focus should be on services rather than existing institutions and markets. Expanding provision of payment, savings and other financial  services  to  the  unbanked  might  mean  looking  beyond  existing  institutions, products, and delivery channels, such as banks, traditional checking accounts, and brick-and-mortar branches. Third, we should focus on the demand constraints as well as the supply ones; expand financial literacy programs for households and enterprises;  and  address  nonfinancial  constraints,  especially  for  small  enterprises  and in rural areas.

Financing Africa: Through the crisis and beyond  -  English (en)

Author Beck, T. et al.
Publisher The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
Washington, D.C.
Number of Pages 324 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Access To Finance, Africa, Financial Services
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Deepening Rural Financial Markets: Macroeconomic, Policy and Political Dimensions 2003

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This paper examines key features of a macroeconomic environment, policy framework, and government and donor interventions conducive to rural financial deepening. The paper also explores typical difficulties, encountered in political arenas, in the adoption of the required macroeconomic and policy framework. In particular, the paper addresses specific consequences for rural financial market development of the programs for macroeconomic stabilization, structural adjustment, financial liberalization, and improvements in the framework of prudential regulation and supervision implemented by many developing countries in the past two decades.

To examine the nature of the challenges involved in deepening rural financial markets, the paper builds on recognized lessons from the failures of rural credit programs during the period of protectionism-financial repression (1950s-early 1980s) and from the shortcomings of the period of financial liberalization (1980s-2000s), and it identifies new types of tasks for both governments and donors as well as conditions for improved outcomes for all participants in rural financial markets. In addition, the paper considers entirely new types of challenges, resulting from greater instability in international financial markets and from contagion through exogenous systemic shocks, which have added complexity to processes of financial development, at large, and of rural financial deepening, in particular.

The paper incorporates a new vision about the role of the state in the promotion and regulation of financial markets. Price –interest rate– controls and administrative credit allocations are no longer favored. Direct production of financial services by the state has been seriously questioned. Instead, given an appropriate regulatory framework, competition is encouraged. A new critical role for the state is, indeed, acknowledged. There is a growing recognition that the establishment of a physical and institutional infrastructure that facilitates the smooth operation of financial markets is indispensable for rural financial deepening. Many components of this physical and institutional infrastructure contain elements of public goods and, without state intervention, they would be underprovided.

Beyond a conducive policy framework, the paper emphasizes the importance of innovations in financial technologies, in allowing a cost-effective expansion of the frontier of rural financial services. In addressing this question, the paper explores the challenges that governments and donors face in promoting alternative types of changes in financial production functions. On the one hand, these state efforts may be needed, in response to the potentially strong externalities that emerge in most processes of knowledge generation and human capital formation. On the other hand, these state efforts may be extremely problematic, in view of the difficulties of correctly anticipating the most cost-effective types of new knowledge.

In addition to the Introduction, the paper contains five sections. Section II identifies different motivations behind a growing interest in rural financial deepening and the threats that may result from an incorrect understanding of the role of finance. Section III acknowledges the emergence of new views, policy environments, and experiences in rural finance and derives lessons for the future. Section IV discusses changes in perspective about both the role of finance in rural development and the role of the state in promoting financial deepening. Section V identifies three gaps in the provision of rural financial services (inefficiency, insufficiency, and lack of feasibility gaps) and suggests different types of approaches to fill each one of these gaps. Section VI discusses in detail specific state interventions needed to promote the demand and the supply of financial services.

This is a demanding paper primarily suited to those who wish to gain a deep understanding of the complex issues involved in the development of rural financial markets. It should be essential reading for students and researchers engaged in the business of interpreting and communicating key information for policy-makers.

Author Gonzalez-Vega, C.
Publisher University of Wisconsin-Madison; BASIS Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP)
Number of Pages 66 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Rural Financial Markets, Policy-Making
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Rural Finance: Issues, Design and Best Practices Book 1997 English (en)

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This book is intended to serve as a reference for decision-makers as they seek to create an environment conducive to the development of rural financial markets. It gives an excellent overview of the traditional approach to rural finance, which relied heavily on supply-led, state-owned agricultural credit institutions, and highlights how widespread, urban-biased policies have impeded rural development.

The book then illustrates the emerging new approach which focuses on creating a favourable policy environment in terms of the macro-economy, agricultural and financial sectors, rural development and the legal and regulatory framework. The book is illustrated throughout with examples and concludes with case studies of three successful rural finance institutions - the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, the Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC) in Thailand, and the Bank Rakyat of Indonesia, Unit Desa (BRI-UD). Two primary criteria are identified as the basis for assessing the performance of rural financial institutions - outreach and self-sustainability.

Book  -  English (en)

Author Yaron, J.; Benjamin Jr., M.P.; Piprek, G.L.
Publisher The World Bank
Number of Pages 172 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Rural Finance, Financial Markets, Government Intervention
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Centre for Central Banking Studies - Handbooks Website English (en)

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The website offers a series of Handbooks in Central Banking, which has grown out of the activities of the Bank of England’s Centre for Central Banking Studies in arranging and delivering training courses, conferences and expert advice for central banks and central bankers of countries across the globe.

Drawing upon that experience, the Handbooks are therefore targeted primarily at central bankers. The aim is to present particular topics which concern them in a concise, balanced and accessible manner, and in a practical context. This should, enable someone taking up new responsibilities within a central bank, whether at senior or junior level, and whether transferring from other duties within the bank or arriving fresh from outside, quickly to assimilate the key aspects of a subject, although the depth of treatment may vary from one Handbook to another. While acknowledging that a sound analytical framework must be the basis for any thorough discussion of central banking policies or operations, the authors have generally tried to avoid too theoretical an approach. Moreover, the Handbooks are not intended as a channel for new research.

Centre for Central Banking Studies - Handbooks  -  English (en)

Publisher Bank of England
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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