Gender

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resource title type year resource
Understanding Gender Norms in Rural Burkina Faso: A Qualitative Assessment Paper 2018

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Will involving men in women’s empowerment increase project impact?

This report documents a series of qualitative assessments completed as part of a pilot test of the Pro-WEAI (Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index), the first comprehensive standardized measure to capture women’s empowerment and inclusion in the agricultural sector. The Pro-WEAI seeks to assist individual organizations and projects with measurement tools that can be used to assess empowerment of women within the context of agricultural projects.

The qualitative research from this pilot test provides concrete examples of the ways in which women in two communities in Burkina Faso are empowered and disempowered. It suggests that savings groups have improved the mobility, financial independence, leadership skills, and resilience of women in these communities. The results also shed light on the extent to which women must request permission from their husbands before making decisions or participating in activities. These findings make it apparent that any project aiming to benefit and empower women in this area must also influence men.

Author Caitlin Kieran, Bobbi Gray & Megan Gash
Publisher Grameen Foundation
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa
Burkina Faso
Keywords Gender and Women's Empowerment, Rural and Agricultural Finance
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Developing gender-sensitive value chains. Guidelines for practitioners. Guideline 2018

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ese guidelines aim to respond to these questions and support practitioners in translating the Gender-Sensitive Value Chain Framework, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) into action (FAO, 2016a). Building on FAO’s comparative advantage on gender in agriculture and food security, these guidelines are primarily intended to assist practitioners in designing and implementing interventions that provide women and men with equal opportunities to benefit from agrifood value chain development. They offer practical tools and examples of successful approaches to foster a more systematic integration of gender equality dimensions in value chain interventions in the agricultural sector and enhance the social impact of these interventions.

The guidelines are targeted to practitioners in a wide range of organizations and institutions, including national governments, international and non- governmental organizations (NGOs), research institutes and the private sector, in particular:

  • value chain practitioners who want to ensure that their interventions are inclusive and socially sustainable, and seek support on how best to address gender issues in their work on agrifood value chains;
  • gender experts who are tasked with supporting the integration of gender equality and women’s empowerment objectives in agrifood value chain interventions.
Examining Customer Journeys at Financial Institutions in Cambodia: Using Big Data to Advance Women’s Financial Inclusion Paper 2018

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Applying a gender lens to understand customers' long-term financial service use

National financial inclusion surveys such as Finscope, Intermedia and Findex provide significant insights into people’s access to finance, but the understanding of customers’ long-term financial service use remains limited. This study uses readily available big data from four financial service providers (FSP) in Cambodia - covering approximately 21 percent of the loans and savings market - to examine how long customers stay with their financial institutions and what types of products they take up during their journey.

Conducting survival analysis and applying a gender lens, this study finds that although men and women have equal access to credit and saving services, the actual amounts of loans and savings mobilized are much lower for women than men. The study estimates that reducing passive savings accounts and borrower exit by 10 percent could add an additional $52 to $155 million to the deposit portfolio and $304 million to the loan portfolio of the four FSPs as well as reduce operating expenses by $54 million. The paper offers business and policy recommendations for improving customer retention through better product development, and recommends incorporating savings mobilization for women and youth into the National Financial Inclusion Strategy.

GENDER AND ICTs - Mainstreaming gender in the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for agriculture and rural development Paper 2018

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While the digital revolution is reaching rural areas in many developing countries, the rural digital divide continues to present considerable challenges. The problem is even more acute for women, who face a triple divide: digital, rural and gender.

This publication looks at the benefits of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) when placed in the hands of men and women working in agriculture and in rural areas. It examines the challenges to be overcome and makes recommendations so that rural communities can take full and equal advantage of the technologies.

The publication has served as background material for Module 4: Extending the Benefits – Gender-Equitable, ICT-Enabled Agricultural Development, which is part of the 2017 Updated Edition of the World Bank Sourcebook on ICT in Agriculture: Connecting Smallholders to Knowledge, Networks, and Institutions

Female Smallholders in the Financial Inclusion Agenda Brief 2018

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Exploring the gender gap through data from smallholder surveys in Tanzania and Mozambique

This Brief explores the gender gap in financial inclusion among smallholder families in Tanzania and Mozambique through unique survey data that allow for a nationally representative look at smallholders. This client segment represents a subset of the better-researched agricultural or rural households observed in other surveys.

Through a gender-based analysis, the brief highlights aspects that financial service providers can look at to tailor financial services to female smallholder needs. It also discusses some key implications for policy makers that are seeking to further coordinate interventions that promote financial inclusion among female smallholders around the world.

Research Series Issue 19 - Measuring Women's Empowerment in Agriculture: A Streamlined Approach Paper 2017

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The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) can be a useful tool to measure the empowerment, agency and inclusion of women in the agriculture sector. However, computing the WEAI in its current form involves large data requirements, resulting in lengthy surveys with several questions on various dimensions and indicators within each dimension. This paper proposes a reduced version of the WEAI, or the R-WEAI, and examines two possible approaches to reduce the data requirements while ensuring comparability to the full WEAI.

Author International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Publisher International Fund for Agricultural Development
Number of Pages 52 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Women Empowerment, Gender, Rural Finance
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Integrating Gender and Women's Financial Inclusion into National Strategies Guideline 2017

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The objective of this Guideline Note on Integrating Gender and Women’s Financial Inclusion into National Strategies is to highlight current practices among the AFI Network and provide guidance on gender and integrating women’s financial inclusion considerations into national financial inclusion strategies (NFIS). This guidance is intended for application by policymakers and regulators engaged in the development and implementation of NFIS.

Author Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI)
Publisher Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Number of Pages 16 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Gender, financial inlcusion, Inclusive Finance
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Promoting gender equality in foreign agricultural investments: Lessons from voluntary sustainability standards Paper 2017

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This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the gendered impacts of the contemporary wave of foreign agricultural investments. The outcomes of agricultural investments for men and women often differ in rural areas of the Global South where gender inequalities are persistent. The evidence presented in this paper indicates that these inequalities are often exacerbated by foreign agricultural investments, unless investors and host country governments work to ensure that investment contracts address the needs of women farmers and agricultural workers. The purposes of this paper are three-fold. First, it seeks to analyze the gender-related content of the voluntary sustainability standards (VSSs) and the responsible investment frameworks. Second, it attempts to answer the question “Do VSSs improve gender equality?” And third, it aims to explore how the responsible investment frameworks can build on the successes and failures of the VSSs to improve gender equality in agricultural investment projects. It uses the experiences of VSSs to provide guidance for responsible investment frameworks because the latter are quite new, and only scant anecdotal evidence about their impacts is available. The research is based on a desk review of the certification criteria and principles of five major VSS initiatives and five responsible investment frameworks, a literature review of the impacts of VSS initiatives on gender inequalities, and a close reading of policy reports and scholarly literature on the main obstacles to gender equality in agriculture, particularly in contexts of foreign direct investment.

Author Kathleen Sexsmith
Publisher The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Number of Pages 60 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Keywords Gender, Agricultural Investment, foreign investments, responsible investment
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Promoting Women’s Access to Financial Services in Zambia - A Case Study Case Study 2017

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Bridging the gender gap in financial inclusion has recently become a policy priority among financial sector policy makers in developing and emerging economies. Yet this focus on women’s financial inclusion is not new. Since 2012, the GIZ has advocated for greater financial inclusion of women. Taking a regional perspective, GIZ commissioned a policy brief in 2012 titled Advancing African Women’s Financial Inclusion setting out recommendations for policy makers and regulators on how to foster African women’s access to financial services. The Bank of Zambia (BoZ) has drawn on the recommendations in the policy brief along with the country’s Financial Sector Development Plan (FSDP) and its 2012 – 2015 Strategic Plan to champion women’s financial inclusion. In turn the BoZ has introduced several initiatives focusing on facilitating access to financial services for women. This case study sets out key developments to promote women’s access to financial services in Zambia. Further, it argues that more concrete actions are still required on both the demand and supply sides to achieve the ultimate goal of full financial inclusion of women in the country.

Author Huber, C. and Schmidt, C.
Publisher Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Number of Pages 7 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa
Zambia
Keywords Agriculture, Gender, Access To Finance, Financial Services
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Women’s Economic Empowerment Through Financial Inclusion: A Review of Existing Evidence and Remaining Knowledge Gaps Report 2017 English (en)

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While there is a growing body of evidence surrounding the impact of financial inclusion and the importance of product design in achieving desired welfare impact outcomes, there remains much to learn about the ways in which formal financial products and services can contribute to women’s economic empowerment. This review finds that, overall, financial service providers and other stakeholders can leverage appropriate product design features to overcome some of these barriers to women’s financial inclusion. Even so, broader social constraints related to intra-household bargaining power and the social status of women may continue to limit the broader impact of financial inclusion on women’s economic empowerment. There is a need for further evidence on effective product-led strategies to address these barriers and improve economic empowerment outcomes for women.

Women’s Economic Empowerment Through Financial Inclusion: A Review of Existing Evidence and Remaining Knowledge Gaps  -  English (en)

Connected Women: Mapping the Mobile Money Gender Gap: Insights from Côte d’Ivoire and Mali Paper 2017 English (en)

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Now available in two-thirds of low- and middle-income countries, mobile money has shown its potential as a powerful catalyst for financial inclusion, bringing financial services to the underserved for the first time. However, a gender gap persists, with fewer women than men accessing and using mobile money services. Data from the Global Findex 2014 shows that women are 36% less likely to use mobile money than men, and this gender gap is wider in certain regions and countries.

To better understand the mobile money gender gap, the researchers analyzed demand- and supply-side data from two countries: Mali and Côte d’Ivoire. They examined transactional data with a gender lens to understand how customers use mobile money, and where female customers drop off on the customer journey—from registration to active use—compared to their male counterparts. They then conducted follow-up research in these markets to understand why women stop using mobile money, which allowed them to identify potential opportunities to reduce the gender gap. 

Connected Women: Mapping the Mobile Money Gender Gap: Insights from Côte d’Ivoire and Mali  -  English (en)

Author Minischetti, E.
Publisher GSMA
Number of Pages 39 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa, Western Africa
Mali, Côte d'Ivoire
Keywords Mobile Banking, mobile money, Gender
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The Role of Insurance Regulation and Supervision in Promoting Inclusive Insurance for Women Paper 2017

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This paper aims to inspire momentum and increase awareness among insurance supervisors of the transformative potential of gender approaches. It explains how supervisors have started to consider gender dimensions in their work, in particular by exploring differences between women and men’s access to insurance. Moreover, it emphasises the relevance of women’s access to insurance in the context of financial inclusion policymaking.

Addressing the gender differentiated investment risks to climate-smart Article 2017 English (en)

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This paper argues that closing the gender gap in land and other productive resources can provide a “triple dividend” of gender equality, food security and climate management, thereby offering a cost-effective approach to the pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, climate change compounds the structural barriers to gender equality that women farmers face, rapidly shrinking the window of opportunity to realize this triple dividend. Yet climate policies largely overlook the gender gap in agriculture.

The growing literature on the gender gap aims to better quantify its implications for agricultural productivity but does not provide a framework to prioritize policy responses. To complement these econometric efforts, this paper proposes a three-step methodology to assist policy-makers in developing countries in disentangling the opportunities and trade-offs of different policies and interventions to close the gender gap that impedes climate-smart agriculture (CSA) for women.

Barrier and risk analyses are increasingly used to identify public instruments that can catalyse climate smart investments. Building on this proven methodology, the paper first develops a table that clusters barriers to CSA into nine independent risk categories. Second, it overlays a gender analysis upon this gender-neutral barrier and risk table to identify gender-differentiated risks and barriers to CSA. Third, it maps identified gender-neutral and differentiated investment risks against possible remedial public policy instruments.

The analysis suggests that about half of identified CSA investment risks have a higher probability of occurrence for women farmers than for men farmers. Furthermore, women farmers might face additional gender-specific barriers, mostly linked to their disproportionate responsibility for unpaid domestic and care work, the risk of violence and unequal power relations with men in the household and community. Targeted interventions will be required to address these gender differentiated investment risks and ensure that CSA market transformation efforts benefit men and women farmers equally.

Addressing the gender differentiated investment risks to climate-smart  -  English (en)

Faire progresser l'inclusion financière des femmes en Afrique Brief 2016

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Ce document de politique générale présente un ensemble de recommandations stratégiques prioritaires destinées à faire progresser l’inclusion financière des femmes en Afrique. Ces recommandations s’adressent aux décideurs politiques africains (gouvernements, banques centrales, autorités de réglementation et de supervision) et aux autres parties prenantes impliquées dans le processus d’élaboration des politiques (réseaux, associations et organisations de la société civile, organismes bailleurs de fonds).

Author Making Finance Work for Africa
Number of Pages 44
Primary Language French (fr)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Accès au crédit, Genre, Produits financiers adaptés, Accès des femmes
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Empowering women: uncovering financial inclusion barriers Paper 2015

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Microfinance plays a significant role in providing sustainable livelihoods to disadvantaged groups all over the world. The provision of loans, savings and payment products for the underserved and unbanked populations is critical to promoting inclusive finance.

Research shows that over 70% of beneficiaries of the financial inclusion agenda are women. The gender impact of microfinance is therefore a highly debated subject and industry experts are calling for greater insights in this field.

EY is committed to supporting entrepreneurship and women’s empowerment. Beyond their commercial offerings, they are bringing together microfinance practitioners to share knowledge on the challenges and opportunities relevant to improving financial inclusion.

This report details practical tips and insights gained from interviews with leading experts in microfinance as shown in Section 5.

List of products Knowledge Management and Gender Programme 2008-­‐2015 Reference Material 2015 English (en)

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This document contains a list of products knowledge management and gender programme 2008-­‐2015. The material is in English and French.

Knowledge Management and Gender Programme  -  English (en)

Author Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, Italy
Number of Pages 9 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Gender, Knowledge Management, Gender Issues
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Promoting Greater Financial Inclusion of Women in Rwanda Document 2015

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The financial inclusion of the poor, especially women, is a key issue in the fight against poverty. But the poorest have so little that often deduce that their economic existence is irrelevant. Unfortunately, this misunderstanding undermines the fight against poverty. So, today nearly 60% of the Rwandan population, including many women, is excluded from formal financial services.

To address this challenges, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry of Rwanda (MINICOM), IFAD and PROCASUR have joined forces to develop a Learning Route in Kenya in 2011. Thanks to this route, officials Rwandan COOPECs (savings and credit cooperative) who participated became aware of the economic interest that represent the poor, especially women. They have managed to implement a number of strategies to strengthen their financial inclusion.

 

Gender, Poverty and Micro-enterprise Services in Ethiopia: Why Only Few Women are Joining? Paper 2006

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This paper examines the need for, and the success of, micro-enterprise programs in Ethiopia, with a special focus on their outreach to women. The paper discusses the role that micro-enterprise can play in alleviating poverty in Ethiopia, reasons why micro-enterprises target women, and the relationship between empowerment, resources, agency and achievements. It also describes the features of the “group guarantee-lending model” and examines whether the program has achieved the empowerment objective and successfully extended microfinance to poor women as well as looking at the pros and cons of the group-lending methodology.

The report finds the impediments to women accessing the program include self-selection of group members that leads to the exclusion of the very poor and unfavourable factors (such as terms and conditions, loan size, low number of female loan officers, lack of business development services support, aversion to risk, and shortage of time).

The paper states that microfinance helps alleviate poverty by enhancing human capital, reducing vulnerability, and providing savings and insurance services and emergency loans. In particular it lists the following positive features of the “self-help approach” – they are savings-based, the pride of ownership and autonomy, the integrated services of finance and business development, economies of scale, and sustainability.

The paper concludes that for micro-enterprise services to be successful in poorer areas, there is a need for improvement in rural infrastructure and education about microfinance.

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