Policy Advice

A policy can be best described as a framework or strategy, giving a broad outline of the direction and proposed development of a particular sector. It is formulated by central government from within a particular ministry to regulate the performance of individual sectors. Policies often focus on creating a strategy which will arrest the decline of a specific sector or redress the imbalances which have occurred as a result of market forces. The challenge in rural finance is for policies that promote the development of a variety of viable financial institutions that are client oriented, mobilise deposits efficiently and provide access to loans for a broad spectrum of farmers, agribusiness entrepreneurs and other rural clients. Agricultural policies are needed which promote the development of profitable farming and these must be supported by road improvements in rural areas. Governments can use their powers regarding taxation, subsidisation, regulation and enforcement to influence the direction of desired developments. Donors also have the potential to influence policy decisions and can play a key role in improving the enabling environment for effective rural financial intermediation to develop. You can browse for resources in the different sub-topics listed on the side navigation bar. Here at the top level you can find a selection of documents that illustrate the process of policy-making and the broad issues with which they may be concerned in the field of financial sector development and rural financial markets in particular.

Library Resources

resource title type year resource
Summary of responses to COVID-19 pandemic by APRACA member institutions Reference Material 2020

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This resource appears in: ICT applications, Policy Advice

APRACA during the last 4 weeks conducted a survey to understand the preparedness and responses of APRACA members across the region to understand the followings:

  1. What is the impact of COVID-19 that you are expecting on the agricultural sector in your country (macro level)?
  2. How the supply of finance to agriculture and allied sectors are being impacted due to COVID-19 (both Macro and micro level)?
  3. What are the responses by your organization to reach out to your customers engaged in agriculture and allied business?
  4. What are the policy measures taken by the national government and central banks to ease the impact of COVID-19 on agricultural finance?

The survery includes responses from 14 Institutions from 9 countries which are compiled and presented below:

South Asia: India (NABARD and State Bank of India), Nepal (ADBL and NCBL) and Pakistan (State Bank of Pakistan)

Southeast Asia: Philippines (ACPC, KMBI), Thailand (BAAC), Laos (APB) and Vietnam (VBARD, VBSP)

East Asia: Japan (JFC) and China (ADBC and HTRCB)

Policy Framework for Leveraging Digital Financial Services to Respond to Global Emergencies – Case of COVID-19 Report 2020

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This resource appears in: ICT applications, Policy Advice

The global pandemic COVID-19 and the ensuing emergencies have reinforced the urgency of using Digital Financial Services (DFS) to preserve the functioning of financial systems and the security of people during the period of declining demand, reduced supplies, and tightening credit terms.
Digital payments, particularly when accompanied by digital financial Infrastructure and enabling regulations, help governments quickly and securely make cash transfers and other socio-economic benefits in the form of financial support.

This policy framework aims to provide policy guidance to regulators within the AFI network and beyond, in developing relevant policy/regulatory responses to mitigate the effects of global pandemics by leveraging on DFS. Although this guidance is immediately relevant to the current COVID-19 outbreak, it is also applicable for other emergencies, including natural and manmade disasters such as cyclone, earthquake, conflicts, forced displacements, etc.

Inclusive Green Finance Policies for MSMEs Report 2020

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

Climate change poses a significant risk to the performance, competitiveness and sustainability of MSMEs, who are the backbone of developing countries and play a vital role in providing employment, goods, and services.

Climate-sensitive sectors such as fisheries, agriculture and food processing are typically the most severely affected. As such, MSMEs in particular do not have the financial means to recover, adapt or mitigate against these shocks, especially when they are severe or occur frequently. This may lead to long-term disruption of operations or even bankruptcy, which carry negative consequences for the national economy.

While financial regulators have taken a variety of approaches to addressing climate change, existing policy tools and techniques for low-income populations and MSMEs can be refined and repurposed with a green focus. This will allow policymakers to act swiftly while at the same time lay the groundwork for innovative policies that may require more preparation. A specific policy framework has been identified by the Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI) network presented in the special report Inclusive Green Finance: A Survey of the Policy Landscape.

Key Facts Statements For Credit: Do They Work? The Experience of Armenia Case Study 2020

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice, Country studies, Prudential regulation

Rapidly developing digital credit products and aggressive credit sales have impelled financial authorities to help financial consumers make more informed and effective credit decisions. One of the tools many countries are using is Key Facts Statements (KFSs), which aim to improve financial decisions in the pre-contract stage of the credit process and to promote healthy competition among financial institutions.

However, many authorities want to know: do Key Facts Statements work?

This research shows that a KFS can have a significant positive effect on consumer credit choice and comprehension if the timing, content, design and delivery methods are appropriate and effective.

The study combines qualitative analyses from three experiments in Armenia and presents insights from international experience. The findings show both positive and negative effects of implementing credit KFSs and policy recommendations are made based on these findings.

Publisher AFI
Number of Pages 12
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Armenia
Keywords Key Facts Statement, Credit regulation
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The Financial Competency Matrix for Adults Guideline 2020

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

The Financial Competency Matrix for Adults defines the core competencies every adult needs to make informed financial decisions, it provides a framework to support effective policymaking, monitoring and assessment.
The Financial Competency Matrix for Adults has played an important role in the development and measurement of financial education policies in Armenia. For example, it has been used by the CBA to develop financial education materials for different target groups, including youth, women and villagers.

This policy framework, which can be applied in countries worldwide, is based on the Financial Capability Barometer developed by the Central Bank of Armenia (CBA) and funded by AFI in 2017, with contributions from the Consumer Empowerment and Market Conduct (CEMC) Working Group through technical feedback.

Publisher AFI
Number of Pages 12
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Financial Competency
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Attention points business continuity for MFIs in view of the COVID-19 outbreak Technical Note 2020 English (en)

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This resource appears in: Rural Financial Services, Microfinance institutions, Policy Advice

This guidance note is organized in two main parts including guidance for analysis and a checklist of measures for crisis management and BCP. The note is meant to be a practical tool for MFIs. It can be used entirely or partially depending on the specific needs and stages of the situation.
The objective of the present note is to provide reference guidelines to Microfinance Institutions (MFIs)/Financial Service Providers (FSPs) when preparing their own Business Continuity Plan to face the pandemic crisis in order to:

  • Maintain responsible treatment of clients and support to come up with measures to cope with theCOVID-19 situation
  • Minimize the risk of infections and insure responsible treatment of employees and agents duringthe crisis
  • Minimize the risks for the institution in order to ensure business continuity during and after the crisis
  • Proactively communicate with all stakeholders.

 

Document  -  English (en)

Author Hans Hekkenberg and Wendy Medrano-Lazo in collaboration with Paula Cortes, Soulemane Djobo, Catherine Liziard, Simone Uccheddu and Massimo Vita.
Publisher ADA
Number of Pages 20
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Coronavirus (COVID-19), Microfinance Institutions, Financial Service Providers, Business Continuity Plan
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Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2015 Report 2016 English (en) English (en)

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

The 2015 edition of the Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation report covers OECD member countries and emerging economies. It is a unique source of up-to-date estimates of global support to agriculture. In July 2015, the new Producer Support Estimate Database and summary highlights of the upcoming Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2015 were launched. The full report will become available in the fall.

The new data run through 2014, and cover all OECD countries as well as Brazil, China, Indonesia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazaksthan, and South Africa. One of the main findings is that average levels of support to agricultural producers in OECD countries and in emerging economies are converging. The OECD recommends that countries put more effort into refocusing agricultural policies to address long-term needs for improving the productivity and sustainability performance of agriculture, to help it face the multiple challenges ahead.

The analysis in this publication is based on data for the calculations of support and supplemented by the OECD Producer Support Estimate (PSE) database.

Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2015  -  English (en)

Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation  -  English (en)

Inversión pública y descentralización: sus efectos sobre la pobreza rural en la última década Book 2015

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento de investigación analiza los efectos de las distintas categorías de inversión pública sobre la pobreza rural en el Perú durante el periodo 2004-2012 a partir de la construcción de series de datos de inversión pública rural (IPR) a nivel departamental. Los resultados del trabajo muestran que elementos como el riego, infraestructura de caminos, telecomunicaciones y programas de apoyo al productor tienen un efecto significativo sobre la reducción de la pobreza rural ya que estos se manifiestan principalmente a través de mejoras en la productividad agrícola. De igual manera, el fortalecimiento del capital humano y las inversiones en conectividad y acceso a mercados también tiene una importante incidencia que se traduce en cambios en los ingresos y la composición ocupacional la población  rural.

Author Ricardo Fort, Héctor Paredes
Publisher Grupo de An{alisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE)
Number of Pages 132
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Peru
Keywords Inversión pública, Descentralización, Pobreza Rural
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Alianza para erradicar la pobreza rural Paper 2015

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El Fondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA), organismo especializado del sistema de las Naciones Unidas dedicado a erradicar la pobreza rural en los países en desarrollo. A través de préstamos y donaciones colabora con las comunidades rurales pobres, gobiernos, donantes, ONG y otros asociados, para elaborar y financiar programas y proyectos que aseguren el acceso de población rural a los bienes que necesitan para superar la pobreza, entre dichos bienes identifica a los servicios financieros, la tecnología y los mercados. Sobre la base de ello el documento explica como el FIDA en alianza con el Fondo OPEP procuran producir un cambio real en la vida de la población pobre cofinanciando programas y proyectos en países en desarrollo para ayudar a los pobres a elevar sus niveles de vida 

Author Fondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA)
Publisher Fondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola (FIDA)
Number of Pages 20
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Keywords Pobreza Rural, Alianza
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Desarrollo económico, crédito rural y conflicto armado en Colombia Document 2015 Spanish (es)

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento analiza la relación existente en Colombia entre el conflicto armado y el crédito rural, con el fin de sugerir medidas de política pública que permitan incrementar los niveles de inclusión financiera. Para ello, el trabajo analiza la relación entre el crédito agropecuario, (otorgado por FINAGRO) y la violencia a nivel departamental, en el período de 2004-2012.

Desarrollo económico, crédito rural y conflicto armado en Colombia  -  Spanish (es)

Author Asociación Colombiana de Instituciones Microfinancieras - Asomicrofinanzas
Publisher Asociación Colombiana de Instituciones Microfinancieras - Asomicrofinanzas
Number of Pages 69
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, South America
Colombia
Keywords Colombia, Conflicto Armado, inclusión financiera
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Revisión de la OCDE de las Políticas Agrícolas: Colombia 2015 Report 2015

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento analiza el contexto de las políticas y las principales tendencias del sector agrícola de Colombia. Asimismo, clasifica y mide el apoyo destinado al sector agrícola. De acuerdo al documento el apoyo a la agricultura debe centrarse en reformas estructurales a largo plazo y sugiere, entre otros puntos, adoptar medidas para monitorear los programas de financiamiento para evitar riesgos morales en la programación de créditos. La revisión sugiere que se lleven a cabo evaluaciones del marco de cooperación entre la institución financiera de segundo piso FINAGRO y las entidades financieras comerciales que tengan relación directa con los agricultores. 

Author OCDE
Publisher OECD
Paris, France
Number of Pages 27
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Colombia
Keywords Política Agrícola
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Financiamiento Nacional Sector Agrícola “Guía de Proyectos de Inversión Sector Agrícola” Guideline 2015

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento es una guía cuyo objetivo es explicar la forma en la que se deben elaborar los Proyectos de Inversión que acompañan las solicitudes de financiamiento del sector Agrícola, a ser consignadas en el Banco de Desarrollo Económico y Social de Venezuela (Bandes). Dichos proyectos deben estar enmarcados en los lineamientos estratégicos del Plan de Desarrollo Económico y Social de la Nación 2013-2019.

Author Gerencia Ejecutiva de Cooperación y Financiamiento Nacional
Publisher Banco de Desarrollo Económico y Social de Venezuela
Number of Pages 14
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Americas, South America
Venezuela
Keywords Financiamiento agrícola, inversión
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Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2015 Report 2015 English (en) English (en)

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

This annual publication provides information on policy developments and related support to agriculture in OECD countries and selected partner economies, measured with the OECD Producer Support Estimate methodology.

OCED Agricultural Report 2015  -  English (en)

OCED Agricultural Report 2015 - highlights  -  English (en)

Author OECD
Publisher OECD
Paris, France
Number of Pages 298 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords agricultural policy, Agriculture, Agricultural Innovation, Economic Development
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Agricultural Growth in West Africa (AGWA): Market and Policy Drivers Document 2015 English (en)

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

West African Agriculture is at a turning point. The combination of strong demand growth, sustained economic growth, higher global agricultural prices, and an improved policy environment has generated the most conducive conditions for Agricultural growth in over 30 years. West African countries and their Development Partners now clearly recognize the sector’s vital importance for broad-based growth, food security, improved nutrition and poverty reduction. At the same time, a combination of old and new challenges ranging from climate change to increased price volatility threaten the ability of West Africans to seize these opportunities. 

In view of the challenges and opportunities facing West African Agriculture, the African Development Bank (AfDB), with support from the Government of France, partnered with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to conduct a joint analytical study entitled Agricultural Growth in West Africa (AGWA): Market and Policy Drivers. The study contributes to a better understanding of the evolving context for growth in West Africa’s agrifood sector by: (1) examining the drivers and trends affecting the demand for and supply of agrifood products, (2) evaluating the performance of the Agricultural sector and related policies in the light of those trends and (3) distilling the main implications for future policy priorities. 

Agricultural Growth in West Africa (AGWA)  -  English (en)

Author Frank Hollinger and John M. Staatz
Publisher FAO
Number of Pages 406 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Agriculture, Africa
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Desarrollo económico, crédito rural y conflicto armado en Colombia Document 2015 Spanish (es)

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento analiza la relación existente en Colombia entre el conflicto armado y el crédito rural, con el fin de sugerir medidas de política pública que permitan incrementar los niveles de inclusión financiera. Para ello, el trabajo analiza la relación entre el crédito agropecuario, (otorgado por FINAGRO) y la violencia a nivel departamental, en el período de 2004-2012.

Desarrollo económico, crédito rural y conflicto armado en Colombia  -  Spanish (es)

Author Asociación Colombiana de Instituciones Microfinancieras - Asomicrofinanzas
Publisher Asociación Colombiana de Instituciones Microfinancieras - Asomicrofinanzas
Number of Pages 69
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, South America
Colombia
Keywords Conflicto Armado, inclusión financiera
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Programa Nacional de Financiamiento al Microempresario y a la Mujer Rural Document 2015

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento describe el Programa Nacional de Financiamiento al Microempresario y a la Mujer Rural cuyo objetivo es el de proveer una oferta de servicios microfinancieros que permita que  población excluida- como la rural-pueda poner en marcha unidades económicas productivas,fortalecer el desarrollo empresarial de las MIPYMES y los organismosdel sector social de la economía mediante servicios competitivos de microfinanzas.

Author Secretaría de Economía
Publisher Secretaría de Economía
Number of Pages 34
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, Central America, South America
Mexico
Keywords Mexico, microempresas, mujer
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Políticas para el Sector Agropecuario y el Desarrollo de los Territorios Rurales 2015-2018 Report 2015

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento presenta las Políticas para el Sector Agropecuario y el Desarrollo de los Territorios Rurales 2015-2018. Mediante estas políticas se propone apoyar a los pequeños y medianos productores para que continúen produciendo, asegurándoles acceso a mejores técnicas, comercio justo, financiamiento adecuado y una articulación de acciones en los territorios rurales que permita asegurar el pleno desarrollo de la familia rural. El documento identifica al crédito como un instrumento para que el sector pueda vincularse y competir a nivel internacional en base a determinadas acciones estratégicas tales como i) el establecimiento de programas de financiamiento específico para el sector agroexportador con recursos del Sistema de Banca para el Desarrollo (SBD), ii) Negociación con el sistema bancario nacional para obtener condiciones  de crédito diferenciadas  para el sector exportador a tasas de interés competitivas a nivel internacional y garantía prendaria de las cosechas y iii) Negociación con el Ministerio de Economía Industria y Comercio, la reforma a la Ley 8262  de Fortalecimiento de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PyMes) para la inclusión de las empresas agropecuarias  y permitir que sean sujetas de créditos diferenciados,  incentivos y otros beneficios.

Author María del Rocío Saborío López, Lorena Jiménez Carvajal, Alicia Sánchez Solís, Franklin Charpantier Arias/ Secretaría Ejecutiva de Planificación Sectorial Agropecuaria (SEPSA), Área de Política Agropecuaria y Rural (APAR)
Number of Pages 62
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, Central America
Costa Rica
Keywords Costa Rica; Política Agrícola
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La agricultura andina frente al cambio climático Book 2014

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This resource appears in: Policy Advice

El documento presenta un marco de referencia sobre los temas y conceptos clave del proyecto Microfinanzas para la adaptación basada en ecosistemas (MEbA) cuyo objetivo es brindar acceso a productos y servicios microfinancieros que permitan a la población rural y peri-urbana de la regiónandina de Colombia y Perú realizar inversiones para mejorar prácticas productivas, incrementar ingresos y conservar ecosistemas. El trabajo se enfoca también en caracterizar a la región andina, sus ecosistemas y la actividad agrícola que se desempeña en este territorio y destaca el rol del sectormicro financiero para promover la adaptación al cambio climático con enfoques sustentables.

Author Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente, Oficina Regional para América Latina y el Caribe/ Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate and Sustainable Energy Finance
Publisher Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente, Oficina Regional para América Latina y el Caribe/ Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate and Sustainable Energy Finance
Number of Pages 66
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global
Colombia, Peru
Keywords Cambio climático, Agricultura Andina
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Estrategia de alianza con la República del Paraguay para los años fiscales 2015-18 Document 2014

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El documento presenta la Estrategia de Alianza con la República del Paraguay mediante la cual el Grupo Banco Mundial  brinda apoyo al Paraguay en la ejecución  de su Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (PND) con el objetivo  de erradicar la pobreza  extrema. En el documento, se presenta un breve análisis de los desafíos del programa gubernamental de Paraguay así como el programa  propuesto por el Grupo Banco Mundial para los años fiscales 2015- 18. Entre los proyectos de este último se incluyeron programas como el PRODERS que brinda apoyo a la población rural pobre y busca incrementar el número de comunidades indígenas con títulos de propiedad formales. Este programa tuvo un desempeño satisfactorio, se llevó a cabo una evaluación de Tierras Rurales en base a la cual se estableció  una marcada  relación entre  el acceso a los créditos para el sector agrícola y la desigualdad y acceso limitado de los pobres a tierras arrendadas. 

Author Grupo Banco Mundial
Number of Pages 106
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, South America
Paraguay
Keywords Estrategia; Banco Mundial; Paraguay
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