Investment: General

With the recent increase in food prices and resulting implications for food security, the urgency of increasing investment is now recognized as are the opportunities for profitable investment.

Library Resources

resource title type year resource
Unlocking Private Investment : A Roadmap to Achieve Côte d’Ivoire’s 42 Percent Renewable Energy Target by 2030 Paper 2018

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Countries around the world are working towards a low-carbon future. Since the adoption of the Paris Agreement in December 2015, 189 countries have submitted national plans that set clear goals to increase investment in renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, climate-smart agriculture, and more. Beyond setting the stage for bottom-up action, these Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) also opened massive potential for investment—nearly $23 trillion according to the 2016 International Finance Corporation (IFC) Climate Investment Opportunities in Emerging Markets report. Much of this investment will need to come from the private sector. Governments— including Cote d’Ivoire—are increasingly interested in working with the private sector to unlock vital finance and develop innovative solutions. Costs for renewable energy are rapidly decreasing and in certain cases can be less expensive than generating electricity from fossil fuels. This has helped to radically change the model of energy development and access around the globe, and a larger share of the energy mix is expected to be renewable in future. In regions like Sub-Saharan Africa where there is high interest in expanding infrastructure to improve access to energy, there is an opportunity to leapfrog traditional electrification approaches and develop new models that are cleaner, more efficient, and focused on customer and business needs. Cote d’Ivoire’s commitments are ambitious. The country's NDC, released in 2016, set a target to reduce its greenhouse-gas emissions by 28 percent by 2030, including a target to generate 42 percent of electricity from renewable energy by 2030. As highlighted in the IFC Climate Investment Opportunities report, the country is focused on spurring economic growth and solidifying its role as an economic engine for West Africa. The government recognizes the key role of private sector investment in expanding renewable energy penetration. Overall, Cote d’Ivoire’s 2016-2020 National Development Program aims to attract $32 million in private investment. The main drivers of sustained growth are expected to be both public and private investments in infrastructure, opening significant opportunities for the energy and electricity sectors. The Ministry of Petroleum, Energy and Renewable Energy Development is developing the overall strategy and policy framework for including renewables into the energy mix. The Societe des Energies de Cote d’Ivoire (CI-Energies), a state-owned asset holding company, is moving this framework forward and has mapped technology-specific needs and is offering tenders to develop the projects that will contribute to NDC goals. Although Cote d’Ivoire has yet to increase its power generation capacity, it has made substantial progress in improving the existing transmission and distribution network and restoring the energy sector’s financial viability.

Publisher International Finance Corporation
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa
Côte d’Ivoire
Keywords Private Investment
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2018 OECD Survey of Investments Regulation of Pension Funds 2018

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This report describes the main quantitative investment regulations that pension funds, or sometimes other pension providers such as life insurance companies, are subject to in OECD and a selection of IOPS Member countries mainly. The information is as of December 2017. The survey covers all types of pension plan. Regulations may vary by type of plan: occupational/ personal, mandatory/voluntary, defined benefit (DB)/defined contribution (DC), etc. In this respect, the tables list the types of plan that the investment regulations apply to. The information collected concerns all forms of quantitative portfolio restrictions (minima and maxima) applied to pension funds at different legal levels (law, regulation, guidelines, etc.)

Publisher OECD
Number of Pages 352 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Long-Term Finance, Institutional Investors, Legal & Regulatory Environment, Pensions
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Blended Finance in the Least Developed Countries Report 2018

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The report ‘Blended Finance in the Least Developed Countries’ - prepared by UNCDF in collaboration with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Southern Voice on Post-MDG International Development Goals, Convergence and the United Nations Foundation - aims to help fill in these gaps.There is a consensus that public and private finance will both be needed—at scale—to meet the SDGs. Blended finance is receiving increasing attention for its potential to maximize the catalytic impact of concessional finance by sharing risks or lowering costs to adjust risk–return profiles for private investors. This works to crowd in private or commercial capital for SDG-related investments that would otherwise be overlooked. Still, to date there has been limited evidence of where, how, why, and in which sectors blended approaches are being deployed in LDCs; what are the opportunities and challenges with blended strategies; and under which conditions blended finance is best applied. Through a rich evidence base, data analysis, and detailed case studies, the report explores how to implement and adapt blended finance approaches to LDCs to maximize their effectiveness in crowding in private capital while minimizing risks. The report also proposes an Action Agenda to guide decision-makers in their blended finance approaches.

Publisher UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF); Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Number of Pages 128 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Blended Finance, LDCs
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Rwanda Investor Perceptions Survey 2018 Paper 2018

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This resource appears in: Investment: General

The Rwanda Investor Perceptions Survey is a publication of the World Bank Group and the Rwanda Development Board, in partnership with the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development. The survey, published in June 2018, identifies investor perceptions of Rwanda as an investment destination with a focus on export-oriented companies in the tea, horticulture, agro-processing, minerals, manufacturing, tourism, ICT, and healthcare sectors. The survey highlights opportunities in the Rwandan market and draws attention to areas for potential improvement of Rwanda as an investment destination.

Publisher World Bank Group
Number of Pages 94 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa
Rwanda
Keywords Investor Perceptions Survey
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Navigating the Next Wave of Blended Finance for Financial Inclusion Brief 2018

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Key ways donors and development finance institutions can optimize their impact

Blended finance is at the heart of the discussion on how to attract private investors to close the estimated $2.5 trillion annual gap to finance the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In financial inclusion, the use of blended finance is not new and has attracted private investments from international and local sources. How will this most recent emphasis on using blended finance to mobilize private capital for development affect funding for financial inclusion?

This Brief presents opportunities for the new wave of blended finance and points to areas that deserve further attention to optimize the use of different funding sources to advance responsible financial inclusion.

Author Barbara Scola, Louise Moretto & Estelle Lahaye
Publisher CGAP
Number of Pages 4 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Donors, Investment and Funding Landscape
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Africa To Africa Investment - A First Look Report 2018

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This resource appears in: Investment: General

Africa-to-Africa Investment: a first look’ aims to take the conversation on investing in the continent one step further. It is the first attempt to showcase how African companies and policymakers are driving investments in Africa and what more can be done moving ahead. To start to plug the data gap on intra-African investments, the report takes a look at the dynamics behind African investment from the point of view of leading African companies. It shares key lessons and experiences to offer practical solutions for the region’s investors. The report features case stories from eight publicly listed or privately owned African companies operating in a range of sectors. Each has a significant African footprint – registered and operational in at least one country outside of the company’s home base. The companies represent consumer services, finance, industry, media and diversified portfolios and investment from across North Africa (Morocco), West Africa (Nigeria, Togo), East and Central Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya) and Southern Africa (Mauritius, South Africa).

Publisher African Development Bank
Number of Pages 40 pp,
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Long-Term Finance, Institutional Investors, Capital Markets, Access To Finance, Banking, private equity
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Global Investment Competitiveness Report 2017/2018 : Foreign Investor Perspectives and Policy Implications Report 2018

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This inaugural issue of the World Bank Group’s Global Investment Competitiveness Report presents novel analytical insights and empirical evidence on foreign direct investment’s (FDI) drivers and contributions to economic transformation. Three key features distinguish this report from other leading FDI studies. Firstly, its insights come from a variety of sources, including a new survey of investor perspectives, extensive analysis of available data and evidence, and a thorough review of international best practices in investment policy design and implementation. Secondly, the report provides targeted, in-depth analysis of FDI differentiated by motivation, sector, and geographic origin and destination of investment. Thirdly, the report offers practical and actionable recommendations to developing country governments. The report’s groundbreaking survey of more than 750 executives of multinational corporations investing in developing countries finds that—in addition to political stability, security, and macroeconomic conditions—a business-friendly legal and regulatory environment is the key driver of investment decisions. The report also explores the potential of FDI to create new growth opportunities for local firms, assesses the effectiveness of fiscal incentives in attracting FDI, analyzes the characteristics of FDI originating in developing countries—so-called South–South and South–North FDI—and examines the experience of foreign investors in countries afflicted by conflict and fragility.

Global Economic Prospects 2017: weak investment in uncertain times Report 2017 English (en)

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Stagnant global trade, subdued investment, and heightened policy uncertainty marked another difficult year for the world economy. A subdued recovery is expected for 2017, with receding obstacles to activity in commodity exporters and solid domestic demand in commodity importers. Weak investment is weighing on medium-term prospects across many emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). Although fiscal stimulus in major economies, if implemented, may boost global growth above expectations, risks to growth forecasts remain tilted to the downside. Important downside risks stem from heightened policy uncertainty in major economies. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report. On a semiannual basis (January and June), it examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on developing countries. The report includes analysis of topical policy challenges faced by developing countries through in-depth research in the January edition and shorter analytical pieces in the June edition.

Global Economic Prospects 2017: weak investment in uncertain times  -  English (en)

Bright Africa - Private Equity 2017 Report 2017

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Africa sustained strong investor interest throughout 2015 and 2016, despite recent turmoil affecting many African countries. Difficulties in oil producing countries, wide-spread political tensions, currency depreciations and persistently low commodity prices have caused strain on the continent’s development and trade. Despite the slowdown in several of Africa’s larger economies, such as Nigeria and South Africa, there are plenty of investment opportunities across the continent. The industry has seen increasing optimism in East Africa, where fast growing economies include Kenya and Ethiopia. A sustained belief in the buying power of a growing population and middle class drives investor focus on consumer goods across most African countries. Other sectors expected to see greater focus in 2017 include agribusiness, technology, financial services, healthcare and pharmaceuticals.

Author Heleen Goussard, RisCura
Publisher RisCura
Number of Pages 18 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa
Keywords private equity, Investments
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2020 Projections of Climate Finance Towards the USD 100 Billion Goal Technical Note 2017 English (en)

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In the run-up to and at COP21 in December 2015, a number of developed countries and multilateral institutions made significant climate finance pledges. The outcome of COP21 further urged developed country Parties to scale up their level of financial support, with a concrete roadmap to achieve their USD 100 billion a year commitment by 2020.

Against this background, the OECD was asked to provide analytical support to the preparation by developed countries of such a roadmap. The intention of this note is, therefore, to provide an analysis of the scale of future climate finance as well as identify and discuss some key uncertainties. It sets out the resulting projections for climate finance in 2020 along with the underlying assumptions and methodologies used.

2020 Projections of Climate Finance Towards the USD 100 Billion Goal  -  English (en)

Impact Investing Trends: Evidence of a Growing Industry Report 2016 English (en)

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Impact Investing Trends: Evidence of a Growing Industry is the GIIN’s first-ever industry-level trends analysis on global impact investor market activity. The GIIN has conducted a rigorous annual survey of the growing community of impact investors since 2011, and this trends report was produced using data from the 2013-2015 Annual Impact Investor Surveys. This includes 62 respondents in the analysis, representing a range of geographies, organization types, and returns philosophies. Additionally, the survey data in the report is complemented by qualitative insights from five impact investors on how the market has changed in recent years and how the market will continue to evolve.

This report provides compelling evidence that the impact investing industry is growing, both in terms of size and maturation. Some key findings include:

  1. Impact investors are demonstrating strong growth, with assets under management growing by 18% compounded annually from 2013 to 2015;
  2. Impact investments are made across the world, in a diverse range of sectors and using various financial instruments, reflecting the wide variety of impact theses and strategies pursued by impact investors;
  3. Impact investors are consistently satisfied with both impact and financial performance;
  4. The industry is making progress against several key indicators of market growth, despite certain barriers remaining to industry development.
Impact Investing Trends: Evidence of a Growing Industry  -  English (en)

Investing in Africa’s development: how impact can contribute to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Africa Document 2016 English (en)

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According to this study, published by Investisseurs & Partenaires (I&P) and the Foundation for International Development Study and Research (FERDI), impact investment offers a wide range of growth opportunities and represents an innovative and efficient answer to the development challenges of the continent. The study also presents the main characteristics of impact investors and how they can contribute to solve development challenges; the landscape of impact investment and how impact investment can contribute to meeting the SDGs in Africa grouped into eight main SDG investment areas, among which is agriculture, and where the private sector can play a key role.

Investing in Development in Africa  -  English (en)

Author Investisseurs & Partenaires (I&P) and the Foundation for International Development Study and Research (FERDI)
Publisher Investisseurs & Partenaires (I&P) and the Foundation for International Development Study and Research (FERDI)
Number of Pages 37 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Keywords impact investing, impact investment
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Investment and Investment Finance in Europe: Investing in Competitiveness Paper 2015 English (en)

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The EIB’s annual economic publication focuses on investment and investment finance in Europe, discussing both cyclical and structural factors. This year’s special topic is investing in competitiveness.

This publication takes a closer look at the European competitiveness challenge. Competitiveness gaps are increasingly seen as the main cause of divergent economic development patterns between countries. They are also identified as an important reason for some of the most disruptive downturns, including the latest EU crisis. Therefore restoring competitiveness is broadly acknowledged as the critical building block for achieving sustainable growth. At the same time, when asked what competitiveness is all about, scholars and policymakers will respond rather differently, reflecting the fact that there is more than one definition of competitiveness and that it is also a matter for controversy.

The starting point in the publication is that a country is as competitive as its firms. Therefore, what makes a country competitive is primarily what makes its individual firms competitive. The publication argues that productivity is the key determinant of a firm’s competitiveness. In this context, Chapter 6 provides a framework for thinking about productivity growth. It emphasises the importance of innovation as the key driver of a firm’s productivity. However, firms need proper incentives and capabilities to excel in their profit-motivated innovation activities. These are spurred by efficient creative destruction and reallocation of resources, appropriate policies and institutions and the ability to quickly benefit from new technological waves. Furthermore, in an increasingly open world it is becoming more and more important for firms in advanced economies to be able to perform high value added activities within global integrated production chains, as discussed in Chapter 7.

Investment and Investment Finance in Europe  -  English (en)

Author European Investment Bank
Publisher European Investment Bank
Number of Pages 234 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Europe
Keywords Investment, investment finance, competitiveness
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Investment Learning Platform (ILP) Website 2015 English (en) English (en)

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The Investment Learning Platform (ILP)  aims to provide concise and practical guidance to those who plan, formulate, implement or evaluate public investment in agriculture and rural development, in particular government staff and their national or international advisors, as well as partners in investment, such as representatives of producer organizations, think-tanks research institutes or universities, and financing institutions. 

The structure of the ILP aims to provide easy entry points for users to find guidance linked to their particular challenge or interest. Users can enter by choosing the relevant phase of the investment cycle, or a particular theme/task. Short overview texts are complemented by links to further tools and resources. These are deliberately selective, with a focus on the essentials rather than a comprehensive list of all relevant publications.

The ILP builds upon the knowledge and experience of the FAO Investment Centre with its 50 years of practice in supporting agricultural investment in 170 countries, and further draws upon key resources from partners and other knowledge organizations.

Investment Learning Platform (ILP)  -  English (en)

FAO's Investment Centre  -  English (en)

Public-Private Dialogue for Specific Sectors: Agribusiness Article 2015 English (en)

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Public-private dialogue (PPD) is a structured engagement mechanism that aims to bring together all relevant stakeholders, in a balanced and inclusive manner, to assess, prioritize, and achieve sustainable results. Sector-specific PPD can provide an integrated response to factors constraining sector growth and improve the pace of sector reform. It can be particularly helpful in improving competitiveness and provide a highly valued platform for collaboration along the supply chain and across governments, businesses, and communities. Sector-specific PPD can also be implemented at a subnational or regional level.

Public-Private Dialogue for Specific Sectors: Agribusiness  -  English (en)

Author Investment Climate, The World Bank Group
Publisher Investment Climate, The World Bank Group
Number of Pages 6 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agribusiness, public-private dialogue, Investment
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Formas de trabajo de Fondos de inversión de impacto en Latinoamérica Paper 2014

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El documento es una sistematización, realizada por la Fundación IES con el apoyo de New Ventures México, sobre la forma de trabajo de diez fondos de inversión de impacto en Latinoamérica. Discute cómo esos fondos realizan sus tareas, los problemas que enfrentan y las soluciones que plantean. En función a los casos estudiados se determina la necesidad común de crear nuevas herramientas de financiamiento, probar nuevas estrategias de salida y encontrar un equilibro entre impacto deseado y sostenibilidad financiera.

Author Julián Vargas Talavera
Publisher Fundación Innovación en Empresariado Social
Number of Pages 39
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global, Americas, Central America, South America
Keywords Inversión de Impacto
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Investing in Habope : Financial Assessment of Community-Based Small Investments in Sierra Leone Document 2013

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This study addresses a program to provide small grants to some of the poorest communities in Sierra Leone. The program builds on the success of relevant micro financing initiatives. However, compared to traditional loans to small enterprises, which are generally available in urban and peri-urban areas where micro financing institutions are accessible, socially motivated grants to reach the poorest households are used. This report presents the findings of financial assessments funded by the Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) of the World Bank. The assessments cover two of the poorest districts in northern Sierra Leone under the Habope project. The project, which means ‘to give hope’ in the local language Krio, is implemented by the government's National Commission for Social Action (NaCSA) and financed by the Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF). One of its components provides grants to group enterprises which are comprised of vulnerable households who are at risk for hunger and deprivation.

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