Research and planning

All institutions have a "raison d'être" - they exist for a purpose. Profit-oriented businesses are generating an income for those that invest in them and will have an interest in identifying market segments for a product they want to sell or conversely, researching a market with a view to designing products to sell. They will measure their success by financial results and, usually, by expanding market share. Development organisations have development goals and these often include reaching underserved and disadvantaged communities. Their mission statements will reflect this and their market identification serves a somewhat different purpose. Nevertheless, even though goals may differ, approaches to identifying what clients want and what they can afford to pay, so that appropriate products and services can be offered, are generally similar. In this section of the site we will provide information for financial institutions about researching their markets and how they can measure results and client satisfaction.

Library Resources

resource title type year resource
Microfinance and Poverty A Macro Perspective Paper 2010

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The paper tests the hypothesis that microfinance reduces poverty using cross-country data, including a panel. More specifically, the paper examines whether a country with higher MFI’ s gross loan portfoli has lower poverty after controlling for other factors associated with poverty and taking account of the endogeneity associated with MFI’s gross loan portfolio. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section II summarizes the recent evidence of the effects of microfinance on poverty in developing countries. Section III provides a brief explanation of the data which the present study draws upon. Econometric specifications and are discussed in Section IV. The main results and simulations are given in Sections V and VI respectively. The final section offers some concluding observations.

Author Imai, K., Gaiha, R., Thapa, G., Annim, S.K.
Publisher The University of Manchester
Number of Pages 45 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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The Road to Client Assessment: Travel Tips Guideline 2006

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This creative guide is targeted at managers of microfinance institutions and results from the SEEP PLP “Putting Client Assessment to Work”, where participants deliberated on final learning products and pooled their experiences to collectively contribute to this piece. The PLP is a SEEP Network initiative that aims to explore challenges facing the microenterprise field.

The guide proposes that undertaking client assessment is like taking a road trip – it is a process by which an organisation sets out on a lasting journey, learning from and about its clients so as to understand their needs and expectations. It notes that a well-thought out road trip is one in which the following elements are clearly determined:

  • destination (rationale of client assessment)
  • itinerary (client assessment objectives)
  • passengers (who should be involved)
  • cost (human and financial resources required by the client assessment process)
  • the mode of transport (the type of client assessment)

In addition, it is also noted, that the trip should plan to:

  • acquire needed supplies (assess human resources)
  • take the trip (look at the research design and implementation)
  • write a travelogue (report the results)
  • send postcards (communicate changes to staff and clients)
  • review the snapshots periodically to relive the experience (review the client assessment system)

The purpose of this guide is to provide a client assessment checklist for MFIs that outlines:

  • necessary preparations for conducting and institutionalising clients assessment activities
  • which stakeholders should be involved in the process
  • the financial implications of conducting client assessment
  • potential trade-offs and pitfalls of the process that need to be recognised upfront

This innovative guide sets out the key elements of undertaking client assessment as if planning and setting out on a road trip! It is based around answering a series of key questions for road-trippers and includes text boxes of real examples to illustrate key points. It also comes with caution signs, where bumps in the road may hamper progress.

Author Loupéda, C and Gray, B
Publisher SEEP Network and USAID
Number of Pages 42 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Do Microfinance Institutions Really Need to Worry About Their Brand? Paper 2006

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This paper argues that the brand of an organisation is the essence of what the institution stands for in the market: the organisation’s personality and business aspirations. It states that brands are the perceptions, emotions and attitudes others have towards your product or service. It also suggests, however, that there is a collective lack of corporate brand experience in the microfinance sector, which may be due to a limited understanding of what a brand is and how it can be leveraged to attract more clients and build client loyalty, while helping an institution to work more effectively.

This paper documents some of the experiences of MicroSave’s Action Research Partners (ARPs) in strategically building a corporate brand to reach more clients, increase profitability and become more market-led. The principles outlined are drawn from MicroSave and Women’s World Banking (WWB)’s Corporate Brand and Identity Toolkit. The paper provides insights on the brand building process that can assist other financial service providers in designing a strategy for brand development, implementation and monitoring. Following a discussion about what a brand is, using real life examples to illustrate the points raised, the paper sets out why brands are important to MFIs. This section is based around 7 key areas in which brands can assist:

  • facing competition
  • maintaining market leadership
  • mobilising savings
  • unifiying stakeholders around a common vision
  • enhancing market effectiveness
  • increasing profitability
  • building credibility

The paper then sets out steps for developing a brand. It suggests beginning from any brand that may already exist and offers a number of tools that may be used in assessing this starting point. The next stage is to consider where the institution wants to be, before moving into the actual design process.

Following a successful design, the brand then needs to be implemented, requiring communication both internally and externally. The paper suggests ways in which this can be undertaken in an effective manner. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of monitoring the brand’s success.

Author Parrott, L
Publisher MicroSave
Number of Pages 28 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Poverty Scorecards Paper 2006 English (en)

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Poverty scorecards have been created for India, Philippines, Pakistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Mexico.

These are easy-to-use, practical, accurate, objective tools to help microfinance organizations (or any pro-poor development program) measure their clients' poverty levels so as to better target services, track changes in poverty over time, and report on poverty rates to external stakeholders. Each scorecard is based on a recent national survey. The scorecards use 15 simple indicators that field workers can quickly collect and verify. Poverty scores can be computed on paper in the field in real time. The goal is to provide an accurate tool that is simple and inexpensive to implement. Funding was provided by Grameen Foundation USA and CGAP, with project management by Nigel Biggar.

Scorecards  -  English (en)

Author Mark Schreiner
Publisher Centre for Social Development, Washington University in St. Louis
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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How Client Assessment is Making a Difference at CRECER Case Study 2006

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This case study aims to highlight four key lessons learned from the client assessment program of the Crédito con Educación Rural (CRECER), a microfinance institution (MFI) that uses village banking methodology in Bolivia. CRECER’s Credit with Education methodology, developed by Freedom from Hunger (FFH), as well as its use of poverty targeting, is said to differentiate it from many of its competitors. At each village bank meeting, all bank members participate in a one-half hour charla, or discussion, focusing on a variety of health topics such as anaemia, sanitation, or breast feeding. After the educational portion of each meeting, the members move into the more typical village-banking mode of collecting repayments and making disbursements for the coming weeks(s).

The case study itself is based around answering a number of questions. What prompted CRECER to start a systematic process for collecting client feedback? What cultural factors within CRECER allowed the institution to adopt a particularly “participatory” approach to client assessment – using field agents and other staff to collect data, holding meetings to discuss findings, and institutionalising a feedback loop?

The primary lessons drawn from the case study are:

  • Institutionalising a listening culture within an MFI has significant net benefits for both clients and the institution, including improved product and service delivery for clients and increased competitiveness for the MFI
  • Conducting qualitative research using small sample sizes, while not traditionally considered “rigorous” is, in fact, a very practical way to shed light on a variety of research questions. This methodology is quick and cost effective, enabling management to respond to clients as well as operational concerns in a timely manner.
  • Using MFI staff to collect and analyse client assessment data ensures that they “own” the results, as well as the implications of those results.
  • If MFI staff conduct client assessment research, they must be well trained in data collection methodologies. Despite the relatively simple research methodologies used by CRECER, training was still necessary. Poorly implemented research is unlikely to be of use to either the organisation or the client.
Author Brott, R, Murray, I, Rueda, I and Torrico, A
Publisher The SEEP Network
Number of Pages 30 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Client Drop-Out Rate Paper 2005

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This short technical note begins by stating that the client drop-out rate is a major factor affecting the sustainability and growth of MFIs. The rate is a reflection of the relationship between the MFI and its clients. Monitoring the trend in the drop-out rate could yield valuable insights on an MFIs performance and credibility, as drop-outs could be a cause as well as an effect of factors internal and external to the organisation.

The purpose of this note is to suggest a working definition of the phenomenon of client drop-out rate which has field relevance and is operationally convenient for MFIs rather than based on detailed research and needing elaborate methodologies to establish and measure. The note proposes a formula to calculate the drop-out rate from the simple records that MFIs generally maintain.

For the purpose of reaching a definition and to derive a working formula, various definitions and calculation methods are discussed in the note. As such, the note comments on various methods for calculating client drop-out and arrives at the formula adopted by M-CRIL.

Author Micro-Credit Ratings International Limited
Publisher Micro-Credit Ratings International Limited
Number of Pages 4 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Tracking Client Performance Guideline 2005

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This Practice Note discusses how microfinance institutions (MFIs) can cost-effectively monitor and improve their social performance. By monitoring, it refers to regular, systematic and on-going collection of timely and appropriate information that helps the staff and clients of an organisation to make decisions to improve the quality of their work.

Through monitoring the financial portfolio an organisation can respond to problems and reduce risk. If it also monitors success in meeting social goals, this will help to manage and improve social performance, by revealing patterns and trends in who is reached and how they perform. This information enables progress against objectives to be tracked; identification and response to problems at an early stage; seeing whether there are differences in performance for different client groups, different branches, products or staff; and assessment of the risk and performance of different products and services.

Together these contribute to improving the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation’s work. Monitoring provides an overall picture of performance rather than an understanding of the reasons for the trends and patterns observed. It, therefore, does not take the place of more in-depth assessments of social performance, but it helps to guide and complement them.

Monitoring systems can be an important resource to help an organisation manage social performance. However, careful planning is needed to ensure that the system is appropriate for its needs, capacity and resources. This Practice Note guides the reader through choices that need to be made in designing a system that suits their needs. As is stressed elsewhere in the Imp-Act Guidelines and Practice Notes, there is no single system that works for all organisations, but there are some key principals and things to avoid that will help guide through the process. In the end, the effectiveness of monitoring will depend on how an organisation uses the information to make better management decisions (see Imp-Act Practice Note 1 on feedback loops).

Author Imp-Act
Publisher Imp-Act Program
Number of Pages 6 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Is Microfinance a “Magic Bullet” for Women’s Empowerment? – Analysis of Findings from South Asia Paper 2005

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Opinions on the impact of microfinance have been divided between those who see it as a “magic bullet” for women’s empowerment and others who are dismissive of its abilities as a cure-all panacea for development. This paper seeks to examine the empirical evidence on the impact of microfinance with respect to poverty reduction and empowerment of poor women.

The author argues that the provision of financial services, like the provision of any development resource, represents a range of possibilities, rather than a predetermined set of outcomes. It notes that which of these possibilities are realised in practice will be influenced by a host of factors, including philosophy that governs their delivery, the extent to which they are tailored to the needs and interests of those they are intended to reach, the nature of the relationships which govern their delivery and the calibre and commitment of the people who are responsible for their delivery.

The paper is specifically interested in the extent to which access to financial services helps poor women address their practical daily needs as well as their strategic gender interests and whether the approach taken makes a difference to these outcomes. It is also suggested that how needs are addressed may be as critical as which needs are addressed in bringing about the larger structural transformation embodied in the idea of strategic gender interests.

The conclusion proposes the need for caution in talking about the impact of microfinance, in general, and the need to talk about the impact the particular organisations have had in particular contexts. However, regardless of the pace and the extent of the change that they bring about, the review in this paper suggests that microfinance offers an important and effective means to achieving change on a number of different fronts, economic, social and perhaps also political. Nevertheless it becomes apparent that access to financial services does not “automatically” empower poor women and their households. An intervention is contingent on context, commitment and capacity if this potential is to become a reality.

Author Kabeer, N
Number of Pages 10 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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The ‘Most Significant Change’ (MSC) Technique: A Guide to Its Use Guideline 2005

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The most significant change (MSC) technique is a form of participatory monitoring and evaluation. The process involves the collection of significant change (SC) stories emanating from the field, and the systematic collection of the most significant of these stories by panels of designated stakeholders or staff. The designated staff and stakeholders are initially involved by ‘searching’ for project impact. Once changes have been captured, various people sit down together, read the stories aloud and have regular and often in-depth discussions about the value of these reported changes. When the technique is implemented successfully, whole teams of people begin to focus their attention on program impact.

The technique was invented by Rick Davies in an attempt to meet some of the challenges associated with monitoring and evaluating a complex participatory rural development program in Bangladesh.

This guide is aimed at organisations, community groups, students and academics who wish to use MSC to help monitor and evaluate their social change programs and projects. The technique is designed to be applicable to many different sectors, including agriculture, education and health, and especially in development programs.

The introductory chapter to this guide provides an overview of MSC. The second chapter then gets into practicalities of implementing MSC, which is broken down into 10 steps.

  1. How to start and raise interest
  2. Defining the domains of change
  3. Defining the reporting period
  4. Collecting SC stories
  5. Selecting the most significant of the stories
  6. Feeding back the results of the selection process
  7. Verification of stories
  8. Quantification
  9. Secondary analysis and meta-monitoring
  10. Revising the system

Chapter 3 offers guidance on practical troubleshooting, whilst Chapter 4 looks at building capacity for effective use of MSC. The final section covering the practical side of MSC, Chapter 5, examines how MSC fits into the program cycle and how it can contribute to program improvement.

After this chapter the guide delves more into the theory. Chapters 6 and 7 examine the validity of MSC and how it fits with other approaches and epistemologies. The final two chapters then outline the evolution of MSC: where it came from and where it might be heading. The authors do state, however, that MSC can be successfully implemented without a strong understanding of the theory.

Author Davies, R and Dart, J
Number of Pages 104 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Reviewing the Social Performance of Microfinance Institutions Paper 2005

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This paper begins by noting that most microfinance institutions (MFIs) have a social mission. They may aim to reduce poverty, to reach people excluded from financial services, to empower women or to promote community solidarity. This note is largely targeted at staff of MFIs who are trying to improve their organisation’s social performance (described here as the effective translation of their social mission into practice).

The paper suggests that effective MFIs have simple, routine, reliable and cost-effective systems for managing their social performance. These systems tell them who their clients are, what they think about the services they use and how their lives are changing.

This note aims to provide information on how to conduct reviews to improve the quality of a Social Performance Management (SPM) system. A social performance review can help an MFI: to consider how data collection, analysis and reporting can be improved; to ensure findings are being utilised; and to compare performance against your own objectives and the performance of other organisations. The paper argues that if this is done well, then it should be easier to respond to requests for information from other agencies, as well as to convince them of the validity of the social mission adopted and success in achieving it.

The paper is based around four key sections:

  1. Why carry out a social performance review?
  2. What should the review ask?
  3. Designing a social performance review
  4. Beyond social performance reviews: developing national and international standards and benchmarks?

Seven useful dialogue boxes are included within the paper to supplement the core text. These cover the following topic areas:

  1. Reviews, audits and ratings – clarifying terminology
  2. Linking social performance reviews to other activities
  3. Sample selection and checks on data quality
  4. The benefits of a small set of indicators
  5. Selecting branches, staff, groups or clients for interviews
  6. Suggested outline for a social performance review report
  7. Possible annexes to the review report
Author Imp-Act
Publisher Imp-Act
Number of Pages 6 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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The Commercial Model for Microfinance and its Effects on Social Inclusion Article 2005

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This article highlights the concern about the growing commercialisation of microfinance, and whether this approach, based on a competitive market, runs the risk of hiding the reasons why microfinance was created and developed in the first place. This issue of “Zoom Microfinance” attempts to further develop the debate on the commercialisation of microfinance and social inclusion.

The minimalist approach to “social conclusion” considers that the fact of creating a microfinance organisation increases access to sustainable financial services through the granting of new or existent services at a lower price for the borrower/saver – hence there is an immediate social impact. The “maximalist” approach suggests the improvement of the social situation can be measured in obvious improvements in the fields of health, education and culture or through the participation in the process of democratic representation.

The paper summarises the possible shortcomings of a commercial approach to microfinance with the following four points:”

  1. The exclusion of certain beneficiaries (generally the poorest)
  2. A tendency to use a unique type of “best practices” to the detriment of local adaptations and innovation
  3. The risk of overly high fees imposed by commercially orientated organisations acting as monopoly/oligopoly at the local level (a perfectly likely case despite the little research up to date)
  4. The risk of losing sight of the original mission, targets and processes in the framework of ill-willed competition

The paper then argues that a link between “commercialisation” and “social inclusion” will depend on the interpretation of the two approaches to social inclusion described above. It suggests that according to the minimalist theory, the commercial approach of microfinance is an essential aspect to improve the situation of clients/beneficiaries. However, in the “maximalist” approach, the impact studies are more widely accepted and upon certain circumstances the commercial approach of microfinance could jeopardise the beneficiaries’ social inclusion.

In sum, the paper states given the current state of microfinance, we believe that many different approaches can coexist based on a great variety of organisations. It would be a mistake to underestimate the “moral” objections offered by the commercial approach (they are even understandable). Likewise, it would be equally wrong to overestimate such a model and consider it as the only possible reference. For example the paper notes that more delicate situations (isolated rural areas, conflict or post-conflict areas) clearly require «corrective» measures to a purely commercial approach to prevent the creation of a new generation of people excluded from financial services.

A number of case study examples are also referred to.

Author M. Labie y M. Mees
Publisher SOS FAIM
Number of Pages 8 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Learning from Clients: Assessment Tools for Microfinance Practitioners Document 2005

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This extensive manual aims to help practitioners assess their clients. Its core is a set of five assessment tools that practitioners can use to gather information about their programs – information that is useful for impact assessment, market research, and improving program products and services. Accompanying the tools are step-by-step instructions for using them, starting with initial preparations and ending with data analysis. The manual was developed by the SEEP Network as part of the PVO (private voluntary organisation) and NGO (non-governmental organisation) component of the larger AIMS (Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services) project funded by USAID. It was developed by and for practitioners and aims to respond to the particular needs and challenges they face in determining how their programs and services are affecting their clients.

The manual starts with a discussion on the AIMS-SEEP Impact Assessment Process, setting out the conceptual framework and the SEEP hypothesis. The section also introduces the core five assessment tools and the hypotheses they address. The next chapter covers quantitative and qualitative methods, looking at research, guidelines for interviewing translating questionnaires into local languages and sampling.

The bulk of the manual then moves into 5 core tools:

  1. Impact Survey
  2. Client Exit Survey
  3. Use of Loans, Profits and Savings Over Time
  4. Client Satisfaction
  5. Client Empowerment

The beginning of each chapter on the different tools provides a useful two-page introduction on its particular use. The introduction sets out whether the tool is qualitative or quantitative, an overview of the tool, which hypotheses it tests, its purpose and also an estimation of the time taken to administer the tool. The main part of each chapter then comprehensively walks through the implementations and administration process. The final chapter covers the key aspects of actually planning and scheduling an impact assessment.

Author Nelson, C (Managing Editor)
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Institutionalizing Client Assessment: The Activists for Social Alternatives—India Brief 2004

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This SEEP Progress Note is based on the experience of ASA (Activists for Social Alternatives) in institutionalizing a client assessment and monitoring system in southern India. The organization’s experience demonstrates that client assessment efforts - including listening to clients and staff for feedback, assessing program impact, discovering whether the organization is reaching its target group, and taking action to expand scale and improve institutional sustainability - are worthwhile. Other microfinance institutions (MFIs) can learn from the tools adopted by ASA and from the considerations taken into account when designing a client assessment and monitoring system.

Among the tools developed or adapted for use by ASA are:

  • An excel-based database of all members’ entry-level information to use as a baseline for a future client assessment.
  • Satisfaction Express – a method of providing members the opportunity to offer regular feedback about ASA’s products, services, policies and procedures via a suggestion box and audiotape recorders located at centre.
  • A modified version of the SEEP/AIMS client satisfaction focus group discussion (FGD) to obtain more structured feedback about members’ satisfaction on pre-selected topics. ASA conducts FGDs with current and former members once every six months.
  • Mobile information agents at the ASA information kiosks or VISPS seek feedback from potential and current members.
  • Convening an advisory board of approximately ten non-members in each community covered by one branch, once every six months, to ask why they do not join and whether any unmet demand for financial or development services exists in their communities.
  • The core management team meets with branch staff once a month to get feedback and improve the system.
  • A modified version of the SEEP/AIMS impact and exit surveys are used to get information on poverty and socioeconomic status and satisfaction from both current and former members.
  • The Internal Learning System (ILS) which is a participatory methodology that assesses program impact by getting clients to keep simple pictorial diaries.

This note concludes with a list of the institutional and methodological considerations that have to be taken into account when designing client feedback systems.

Author Gaamaa Hishigsuren
Publisher SEEP Network
Number of Pages 6 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Managing Client Information: Feedback Loop Lessons from Latin America Report 2003

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Today, the microfinance agenda is increasingly client or market-driven. Much of the renewed interest in clients is driven by the industry’s focus on competition and dropouts. Competition, together with the policies of microfinance organisations (MFO) which require clients to take increasingly large loans each cycle, has tempted some clients to take out multiple loans, to assume too much debt and, occasionally, default on some of their microfinance credit. Significant dropouts raise operational costs, a situation that few MFOs can afford. These changes plus other concerns for a more business like approach to microfinance, have led to a growing interest in a more market-led approach to microfinance, and a greater awareness that the customer matters.

This paper focuses on institution-client linkages, i.e. the organisational mechanisms that need to be in place to ensure the effective integration of client information into MFO operations. Key questions addressed are:

  • Who needs what information, from whom and in what form to make decisions?
  • How are the resulting decisions conveyed so that actions are implemented in a timely and efficient manner?
  • How is the effectiveness of these resulting changes assessed?

Answering these questions represents a shift in emphasis away from the practices observed in the majority of microfinance institutions where flows of information are largely top-down and products are developed with little attention to the dynamics of the market. The new focus calls for opening up the opportunities for the client to be heard or for the client or the front line staff to participate in institutional decision-making.

The paper reviews the experience of both MFOs and networks in building capacity for market-led microfinance by exploring these questions:

  1. How is information on clients collected?
  2. How are the results conveyed to management?
  3. How are changes in operations conveyed to frontline staff who implement them and clients whom they affect?

The findings enable the authors to propose some tentative guidelines for the industry to consider as it moves towards a more client-driven approach to microfinance.

Research was conducted with CAME in Mexico, ODEF in Honduras and two networks, COVELO, a national MFO membership organization in Honduras and PROMUC, a village banking network in Peru. The framework for the analysis was the feedback loop which was devised by the Imp-Act programme (see Practice Note No. 1 which is available in the RFLC). Findings from the field visits are presented in sections IV and V of the paper.

It was noted that building capacity within MFOs to implement the feedback loop could be done within institutions and through networks. Factors contributing to the success of both approaches have been the presence of product champions and the time for institutions to learn. All institutions indicated that the conduct of client assessments had lead to institutional changes that had lowered transaction costs for clients and the MFOs, and had raised staff productivity.

Author M. Cohen, K. Wright
Publisher Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
Number of Pages 44 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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Beyond Micro-Credit: Putting Development Back into Micro-Finance Book 2002

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Microfinance is fast growing as a major development strategy and international industry. It seems to provide a practical and workable tool to address the deep-seated challenges of poverty. But can it really fulfil this promise? All too often the development goals of microfinance are lost, either behind technical and managerial solutions in pursuit of financial sustainability, or behind a narrow focus on the poorest.

This book analyses Indian microfinance in depth to explore how development can be put back into microfinance. It sets out how microfinance can be designed in practice to contribute to a wide range of developmental objectives, including providing social and economic security, promoting livelihoods, building peoples’ organisations, empowering women and changing wider systems within society.

The analysis covers the great diversity of microfinance practice in India and its many innovative products and organisational features. It looks in detail at the fast expanding movement of savings and credit or self-help groups in India and compares and contrasts these with groups promoted by the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. It explores social entrepreneurship in the SHG movement in India and how to rise to the challenge of scale in Indian microfinance.

The book challenges much conventional wisdom in microfinance, especially the dominant framework of financial sustainability and outreach to the poor. It demonstrates how current analysis of efficiency in microfinance is simplistic, ignoring a range of real economic costs. It breaks new ground by drawing on the disciplines of organisational development and entrepreneurship to focus on the many organisational challenges and dilemmas that confront microfinance practitioners and how these can be managed in practice. Most importantly it puts development back at the heart of microfinance.

Without doubt this book provides the most comprehensive analysis available of microfinance practice in India and should be read widely by microfinance practitioners, NGOs and funding agencies. It will be of significant interest to those engaged in development studies, economics and sociology and should serve as a valuable supplementary text for courses in development, poverty studies and development economics.

Author Fisher, T.; Sriram, M.S.
Publisher Oxfam in association with New Economics Foundation, London
Number of Pages 390 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
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