Marketing support

There are many definitions of marketing but one simple one is "the series of activities involved in finding out what customers want and moving those products profitably from the point of production to the point of consumption". In order to successfully and profitably market new products, farmers and other entrepreneurs need to undertake market research, decide on marketing channels to be used, plan their production, manage tasks such as packing and storage, identify arrangements for transport and delivery of products and finally calculate their costs and potential profit. Marketing is the single most crucial thing to get right when developing or managing an enterprise, and it is important that farm and micro enterprise advisers understand it and provide competent advice about it, particularly if their clients are borrowing money.

Library Resources

resource title type year resource
Understanding and using Market Information Document 2011 English (en)

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This Guide has been prepared to assist extension workers, and others in regular contact with farming communities, to advise farmers on how best to use market information. The Guide emphasizes the necessity to understand why farmers need information, how they can use it and benefit from its use, and what the available sources of market information are. Why prices change, both in the short term and the long term, how to interpret prices provided by a market information service, and how to calculate marketing costs between farmer and market are also covered. In addition, the Guide provides a number of practical ways in which extension officers and others throughout the world can work to improve their support to farmers’ marketing efforts.

Understanding and using Market Information  -  English (en)

Author Shepherd, A.
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Market Information
Related Resources
Key Factors Underlying Successful Marketing for Small Farmers Brief 2006

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The short brief notes that the key factors underlying successful marketing for small farmers are:

  • institutions
  • behaviour
  • communication
  • commercial services

The brief discusses each of these factors in turn, using the experience of small farmers in East Africa. It argues that the key institutions to develop are savings and loans societies, warehouse receipt systems, higher level associations for small holders, and district core groups of market service providers.

The key behaviour concerns those who profit by exploitation and hiding information. If they do not change their behaviour they will go out of business. Cooperation that replaces cheating along the market chain is the behaviour that needs to be promoted. For example, the paper explains that giving a fair price to producers allows key players in the chain to cut costs and add value in ways that lead to win-win situations for all.

The key to communication is how to make the expansion of one-to-many communication possible by linking mobile phones, radio and internet. The brief explains that time-sensitive micromanagement to make sure that produce is at the right place at the right time in the right quantities to be picked up by the right trucks, etc., depends on fast and reliable communications that encompasses village groups and large national trading companies.

Finally, rather than public ‘telecenters’ the brief proposes commercial rural knowledge management services extending the access of ICT’s to small farmers.

Author Linking Local Learners
Publisher Linking Local Learners
Number of Pages 2 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Production, Sales Revenue, Pricing
Related Resources
Successful Communication – A Toolkit for Researchers and Civil Society Organisations Toolkit 2005

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The authors begin by highlighting that communication is crucial in development – whether in the form of dissemination, guidelines, prescriptions, recommendations, advocacy, promotion, persuasion, education, conversation, roundtables, consultations, dialogue, counselling or entertainment. At the same time, however, they note that communication is often more than providing information. It is about fostering social awareness and facilitating public democratic dialogue. It is about contributing to evidence-based policy, and about building a shared understanding which can lead to social change. It is about creating space for the voices of the poor to be heard, and, ultimately, it is about redistributing power. Furthermore, more communication does not automatically mean more development.

This toolkit is aimed at researchers and practitioners who wish to communicate with policy makers. The tools are, therefore, specifically geared towards the needs of researchers and practitioners in civil society organisations (CSOs), including development NGOs research institutes, think tanks, universities and networks.

The toolkit addresses the questions of how researchers and CSOs can best communicate evidence in order to inform or influence policy, to achieve their own stated development objectives, or simply to make their own knowledge accessible and understandable to a wider audience.

After providing the background picture, as well as looking at the reasons for communicating and conducting a literature review, the toolkit sets out the key tools based under for core heading – Planning, Packaging, Targeting and Monitoring.

Planning Tools

  1. Stakeholder Analysis
  2. Social Network Analysis
  3. Problem Tree Analysis
  4. Force Field Analysis
  5. National Systems of Innovation (NSI)
  6. How to Write a Communication Strategy

Packaging Tools

  1. Visioning Scenarios: Show the Future
  2. Tell a Story
  3. Provide a Solution
  4. Use Surprise
  5. Be Persuasive

Targeting Tools

  1. Writing Policy Papers
  2. Building a Community of Practice
  3. Lobbying
  4. The Gilbert Email Manifesto (GEM)
  5. Websites
  6. Blogging
  7. Media Engagement
  8. Radio

Monitoring Tools

  1. Most Significant Change (MSC)
  2. Outcome Mapping
  3. Researcher Checklist
  4. CFSC Integrated Model
Author Hovland, I
Publisher Overseas Development Institute
Number of Pages 72 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Communication, Policy Dialogue, Development, Information
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Plan de Negocios, Manual Básico para Microempresarios Rurales Document 2005 Spanish (es)

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Los medianos y pequeños empresarios rurales se caracterizan por no tener una tendencia a planificar cuando se trata de implementar sus negocios. Generalmente tienden a no planificar, o en todo caso planifican pero sin tener conocimiento del entorno. Carecen de análisis prospectivo y de metodologías participativas y sinérgicas. En ese sentido, este manual básico, elaborado por el Programa de Apoyo a la Microempresa Rural de América Latina y el Caribe PROMER (FIDA), permite presentar de manera breve y sencilla los pasos requeridos en la formulación de un Plan de Negocios por parte de pequeños productores y microempresarios rurales.

De acuerdo a los autores, ’un Plan de Negocios es un documento de planificación estratégica orientado a los negocios. Debe ser escrito y contener, de forma amplia y detallada, la visión y misión de lo que un empresario quiere realizar. El Plan de Negocios cuenta con estrategias que sirven como herramientas internas para la empresa, así como para su uso externo. O sea, tiene una función interna y una función externa’.

La elaboración de este Manual sobre Planes de Negocios tiene como primer objetivo servir de guía práctica, tanto para el ejecutivo como para el micro-productor o micro-productora, así como a los técnicos o profesionales de extensión para mejorar los resultados empresariales y expandir la visión emprendedora. Su segundo objetivo es brindar una guía al planificador, de forma creativa, que le permita conducir un proceso de gerencia eficaz. Es también una herramienta estratégica para el logro de la competitividad.

El enfoque metodológico de este Manual ha sido aceptado y se ajusta al contexto de varios países, como un elemento conceptual adecuado organizado y sistemático, para preparar un Plan de Negocios, a fin de que las empresas puedan competir con mejores posibilidades de lograr resultados favorables.

El manual define que es un plan de negocios, la importancia de escribir un plan de negocios, y posteriormente describe los pasos a seguir para escribirlo. Estos son los siguientes:

 

  1. Descripción de la idea de negocios
  2. Evaluación de los Mercados y Competidores
  3. Análisis FODA
  4. Definición de Objetivos
  5. Comercialización
  6. Producción
  7. Gestión
  8. Finanzas
  9. Análisis de Riego
  10. Resumen

La parte final del manual enfoca la Evaluación del Plan. El manual ha sido diseñado para ser usado como un libreto de bolsillo, y contiene una sección de apuntes al lado de cada tema cubierto.

Plan de Negocios, Manual Básico para Microempresarios Rurales  -  Spanish (es)

Helping Small Farmers Think About Better Growing and Marketing Document 2004

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This manual begins by noting that there are many different types of farming families in the Pacific and that most of these differences can be attributed to the individual choices farming families make in three important areas:

  • the types and combinations of activities they undertake
  • the ways in which those activities are undertaken
  • the family’s reasons for undertaking activities

Farming families can also be differentiated in terms of the size of their farming operation. This is primarily defined in terms of the area of the farm or of the income received from farming.

The introduction to the manual states, therefore, that the key challenge in developing this manual has been whether one set of analytical tools can be suitable for all the different types of farmers on the small to commercial continuum. Although the farming systems approach to development (FSD) does contain some analytical tools for financial analysis it also includes other tools designed to deal with issues relating to multiple goals and activities (often non-economic) which are undertaken without entering the market place. Economic tools become more important the more commercialised a farming operation becomes.

This manual is designed to help extension and development officers and colleagues train their field facilitators to help interested small farmers and farmer groups make decisions that will improve their income and, hopefully, their feeling of well-being. The manual states that armed with this knowledge, facilitators will be able to better advise farming families about how to consider changes to their traditional farming system, how the changes may affect them, and whether or not those changes will be good for them.

The emphasis in this manual is on small farmers, since they form the majority in the Pacific. The manual itself is divided into five primary parts – where the introduction to each of the following chapters provides details of the material presented :

  1. The farming systems approach to development (FSD) (Chapter 3)
  2. Farm management (Chapter 4)
  3. Marketing (Chapter 5)
  4. The production-marketing link (Chapter 6)
  5. Risk management (Chapter 7)

Prior to these main parts, however, Chapter 2 is devoted to the facilitators. However, it worth noting that the manual also suggests that more educated farmers, and those who are more commercialised, will also be able to benefit from studying the manual.

The manual is well illustrated and includes photos, table and summary boxes to aid the reader. The appendices also include useful information in the following areas:

  • Role and techniques of facilitators
  • Examples of farm record forms
  • A list of useful references relating to the material presented in the manual
  • Definitions of the acronyms used in the manual
  • Definitions of the technical terms used in the manual
Author FAO
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 154 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Farm Management, Marketing, Production, Agricultural Risk
Related Resources
Advice Manual for the Organisation of Collective Marketing Activities by Small-Scale Farmers Document 2004

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This paper suggests that the way small-scale farmers can compete with large farms, which benefit from the production of large quantities of a crop at a high quality standard, and who will have no difficulty in attracting buyers and receiving a market price, is to cooperate with each other to form an association or farmers’ marketing group. It argues, by way of example, that if 50 farmers are able to offer their combined output for sale and take steps to make sure that it is of a standard quality, they will be able to market their goods as successfully as a large-scale farmer.

This manual is designed to assist the staff of service-providers (SPs) supporting small-scale farming communities to advise farmers on how best to work together to increase the value of the goods they sell using group marketing strategies. The manual outlines the benefits of collective marketing and the types of strategies that could be used by different types of farming communities in Uganda. It offers a step-by step-guide on how to achieve these aims beginning with suggestions on how to bring groups of farmers together to discuss all the issues involved.

Further guidance is offered on how the group might chose which strategies to adopt depending on their circumstances, the rights and obligations of each member and the practices needed to achieve a successful outcome. These include the use of democratic decision-making systems, the allocation of specific tasks to individual members, accurate record-keeping, the group’s relationship with traders and credit providers, making use of available market information and how to negotiate with produce buyers and input providers.

The manual is set out in four main sections. The first provides background on collective marketing – what it is and why it is useful. The second section gives guidance on practical work targeted at those working with farmer groups. This covers first meetings, feasibility studies, initial activities and planning the next action. The third section then cover tools for collective marketing such as communication, negotiation, record keeping, money matter, etc. The final section discusses factors for maintaining momentum and keeping collective marketing sustainable.

Author Robbins, P, Bikande, F, Ferris, S, Hodges, R, Kleih, U, Okoboi, G and Wandschneider, T
Publisher University of Greenwich
Number of Pages 103 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Farmer Associations, Structured Trade
Related Resources
Marketing for Small-Scale Producers Book 2004

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Marketing is defined by this guide as all of the activities that can contribute to selling a product for a better price. This Agrodok book is the first one in a series on social-economic topics and is intended for small-scale producers. As this book suggests, marketing a product is very different from producing it. Each activity requires specific knowledge and insight. Someone who is a good producer may not necessarily be a good seller. A producer who wants to market his or her product will have to negotiate with traders or consumers. He or she will have to know about supply, demand and pricing.

In showing how small scale producers can undertake marketing activities, this book begins by setting out how a price is determined and what factors can influence the process. Building on from this, the book then discusses marketing itself and considers it a way to take advantage of, or even influence, supply and demand and ultimately to increase the profit earned from a product.

The choice of product is then discussed. In doing so, the discussion is based around answering the following questions – what possibilities and limitations are there within the household to produce a product, what possibilities are there in the market to sell a product, where is the most favourable market, and how much competition is there in the market? The book then sets out and discusses a number of different ways a product can be sold; in each case both the advantages and disadvantages are highlighted, and ultimately the book suggests that the entrepreneur has to choose the system that fits his or her situation best. The book also includes a section on how to produce successfully for the market, stressing that the production process itself and product quality are also very important, as well as a section on financing issues.

The final two chapters consider the need for cooperation and organisation, and forms of cooperation, respectively. In light of unequal power balance within a market place, the first of these chapters is focused around a discussion of the advantage of cooperation. The latter chapter focuses on two different forms of cooperation – the cooperative and the group.

This book is comprehensive but also clearly set out with a useful range of topics that fall under each main section noted above.

Author de Vald, A
Publisher Agromisa
Number of Pages 75 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Business Advice, Organisation
Related Resources
Agricultural Marketing – What is it? Document 2004

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This short leaflet aims to serve as an introductory guide to successfully marketing new products. It was prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives in Zambia, with the support of FAO and IFAD, for use by extension officers. Despite being specifically produced for Zambia, it offers some very useful guidance applicable to many other countries. It provides a general description of what farmers groups need to know and do in order to supply products to potential markets.

The leaflet notes that before farmers grow a crop, they need to know what customers want to buy. In addition, it stresses that all activities in the marketing chain must be done profitably. Hence, the definition of marketing adopted here, builds on these two points:

The series of activities involved in finding out what customers want and moving those products profitably from the point of production to the point of consumption.

In order to successfully and profitably market new products that consumers want, the booklet sets out and describes a series of 7 key steps to be followed, including a range of questions within each step that should be answered. The steps are:

  1. Identify buyers and their needs
  2. Decide on marketing channels to be used
  3. Plan production to meet their needs
  4. Plan to harvest, process, grade, package and store
  5. Identify arrangements for transport and delivery of the products
  6. Calculate costs
  7. Calculate profit!

This introductory leaflet is the first of a series. Each of the following leaflets deals with a particular crop or type of livestock. Two examples have been provided as downloadable documents below. The product specific leaflets show how the steps described in the introductory leaflet can be applied to that commodity.

Author Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Republic of Zambia
Publisher Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Zambia
Number of Pages 12 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Zambia
Keywords Marketing, Agribusiness, Planning, Extension
Related Resources
Planning and designing rural markets Book 2003

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Upgrading rural markets is one way to improve access to marketing opportunities. This guide is designed to assist community planners, rural engineers and agricultural extension units to formulate and implement relevant market-development plans.

The types of issue covered in this guide include how to design markets that meet a community’s social and economic needs; work with communities to identify their marketing problems and to choose a site for a new market; use appropriate and simple methods to survey and plan the site layout and to design market buildings; prepare a market-development proposal and make budget estimates; undertake simple social and economic feasibility studies; look for financing and construct the market; and manage, operate and maintain the market.

Author Tracey-White, J.
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 138 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Planning
Related Resources
Rapid Market Appraisal: A Manual for Entrepreneurs Document 1999

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This manual is a part of a serried that reflects the experiences of the ILO’s FIT programme and follows the methods practiced by Mr. Katendwa in the Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA) course, a three-day course for trainers. It is aimed at those who own and operate micro and small businesses. The business probably has no more than ten employees and may have no employees. Large companies spend considerable time conducting market research. Often they employ firms to conduct market appraisals to develop and market new products. Micro and small businesses may not even consider conducting market research, and their businesses suffer as a result. This manual aims to help the small business owner conduct market research. Ideally, this manual will be used while undergoing three days of training in Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA) alongside about 10 to 15 other entrepreneurs. But the manual is designed so that the course can be followed without the class if there is no opportunity to join an RMA course.

Rapid Market Appraisal is a way for micro and small-scale entrepreneurs (MSEs) to collect market information to identify and develop new products or market products to new customers. Many MSEs do not try to study their market at all. They continue making the same products as their neighbours, and everyone is competing for a smaller and smaller portion of the market. Yet, as the authors highlight, customers can provide valuable ideas on how to make better products and hot to develop new products.

Following the introduction, Chapter 2 sets out the benefits of Rapid Market Appraisal. Chapter 3 then takes a step-by-step walk through the technique. The chapter covers:

  • Step 1: Finding ideas for new and improved products
  • Step 2: Analysing your product ideas
  • Step 3: Preparing for market appraisal
  • Step 4: Conducting the Rapid Market Appraisal
  • Step 5: Analysing the results
  • Step 6: Planning for the future
Author International Labour Organization
Publisher International Labour Organization
Number of Pages 24 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Business Appraisal, Innovation, Client Demand
Related Resources
A guide to Maize Marketing for extension officers Document 1999 English (en)

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Until recently the marketing and storage of the major grain crops in most African countries tended to be in the hands of government agencies. The situation is now changing. Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa are gradually moving to a system where private traders buy crops from farmers, transport those crops to the cities and sell them to processors, millers and consumers. These changes mean that extension workers will have to develop new skills. They will have to be in a position to advise farmers on what crops to grow, on how and where to sell their crops and on how to store their crops. They will need to be able to answer farmers' questions about prices, about whether to store their crops or sell immediately and about where to buy and how to pay for inputs such as fertilizer and seed.

This publication was developed with the liberalised or liberalising marketing systems of Eastern and Southern Africa in mind. However, many of the points it makes are likely to be just as valuable to extension workers in other parts of Africa or, indeed, outside Africa. It provides extension workers with basic information on private-sector grain marketing systems and on crop drying and storage. Emphasis is on maize, but other crops are briefly considered.

A guide to Maize Marketing for extension officers  -  English (en)

Author Shepherd, A.
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 111 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Business Advice
Related Resources
Rapid Market Appraisal: A Manual for Trainers Document 1999

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This manual is a part of a series that reflects the experiences of the ILO’s FIT programme and follows the methods practiced by Mr. Katendwa in the Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA) course, a three-day course for trainers. The manual is aimed at trainers, agencies and groups who encourage the development of micro and small-scale enterprises (MSEs). More specifically, it is aimed at those agencies which are interested in promoting self-sustaining Business Development Services. The authors note that marketing is an area often neglected by both MSEs and support agencies alike, and many MSEs face problems with a decreasing market as competition for the same product increases. They contend that product innovation based on sound market knowledge is rare, though attention to this area is likely to help businesses grow.

The manual describes a three-day course that takes entrepreneurs through the steps of understanding market demand, developing innovative products, and surveying their local market to assess the potential of the new products.

Rapid Market Appraisal helps MSEs develop marketable products and sensitizes them to the importance of marketing. Most MSEs tend to be fully occupied producing their goods and services. They tend to get their ideas for products from their competitors, until the market is saturated with numerous small producers all competing for a smaller and smaller portion of a limited market. MSEs tend to seek customers based on personal relationships, like relatives and friends, instead of using innovative products to attract new customers. They rarely ask their customers how they could improve their products or services. RMA helps MSEs recognize the needs and opportunities present in the marketplace. When clients become a source of information, ideas for new and improved products can be exploited. The demand for the product can be assessed so that only marketable products are produced and the MSE begins to realize the importance of putting the customer first.

Following the introduction, Chapter 2 presents the case for facilitating Rapid Market Appraisal training. Chapter 3 gives a step-by-step approach to conducting RMA training. The emphasis is on training trainers, who in turn will train MSEs, hopefully largely on a for-profit basis. Chapter 4 provides pointers for monitoring and evaluating the training and makes some suggestions for future innovations.

Author International Labour Organization
Publisher International Labour Organization
Number of Pages 28 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Business Appraisal, Innovation, Client Demand
Related Resources
Good Practices in Marketing for Micro and Small Enterprise Products Paper 1999

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This paper highlights that it has been established that access to profitable markets is a key factor which determines the long-term success for all businesses. For small and microenterprises, however, various constraints limit access, such as inadequate technology, geographic isolation, lack of raw materials and inefficient production. By providing ways to overcome these constraints, marketing service providers play an essential role in developing the businesses of small and microproducers.

Marketing service providers are specialised intermediaries that facilitate access to profitable markets, whether through direct sales or via brokering or sub-contracting. In addition these intermediaries offer a variety of ancillary services, and although the demand for these services may vary depending on the targeted sector and market, this study aims to show that ancillary services often prove just as essential market access.

This paper begins by considering marketing intermediaries and their function in more details before providing a discussion on what marketing services are and how they should be provided – the latter section includes a set of principles for good practice that has been established for how best to deliver non-financial or business development services to micro, small and medium enterprises, which can be applied in general to marketing services.

The paper ends with three case studies from Latin America, which have followed the good practices guidelines set out. The paper uses the case studies to show that when working with low-income producers, institutions may choose to provide certain services without full-cost recovery, at least in the short-term. All three organisations here have been successful in providing a long-term commercial outlet for their clients’ products through effective strategies of market focus, and through a careful determination of which services are required to ensure that producers successfully penetrate the market.

The three case studies are entitled:

  • Colombia – Serving the Local Market
  • Nicaragua – Penetrating the International Market
  • El Salvador – Developing a Market Niche
Author Mikkelsen, L
Publisher Inter-American Development Bank
Number of Pages 22 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Marketing Services
Related Resources
Identifying and Assessing Market Opportunities for Small-Scale Rural Producers Document 1999

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This manual is a tool for promoting a greater business and market orientation within the rural sector of small-scale producers. Not only will does it try to promote the diversification and processing of agricultural production, but it also to help detect market opportunities for traditional products of rural economies, in fresh or processed form. It can also be used to promote a business approach by including formal agronomic, agro-industrial, livestock, and commercial characterization plus economic evaluations of potential market options. In addition, the manual proposes a participatory procedure that involves the small-scale rural producer from the beginning in the research process.

The general objective is for the reader or trainee to be able to facilitate or participate in the process of identifying and evaluating market opportunities for small-scale rural producers in a given territory. These market options will (a) exhibit market demand, (b) be feasible in the territory under consideration, and (c) be accepted by the community of small-scale rural producers.

More specifically, after completing this manual the reader or trainee should be able to:

  • Understand basic background concepts related to market opportunity identification for small-scale rural producers in a given territory;
  • Plan and execute a participatory rapid market survey for a given territory;
  • Establish selection criteria for market options targeted to small-scale rural producers;
  • Characterize and screen market options for a given territory;
  • Plan and execute an evaluation process of market options by the rural community.

This manual is targeted to rural development practitioners (professionals and technicians) in the public and private sectors, who are dedicated to research, development or training. In this context, the manual can be used either as a field guide or as training material. The manual contains exercises, practices and a glossary to facilitate training processes. Additionally, this manual is directed to high school, college and university professors teaching subjects related to agricultural sciences, rural development, agro-industry, and participatory research.

This manual is designed ideally for use in its entirety, because it describes a logical process. The first section provides important concepts that can enrich the subsequent research and analytical process. The second section, the Rapid Market Survey, generates the first product portfolio, while the third section provides a two-stage screening procedure to eliminate unfeasible or inconvenient market options. The execution of the complete proposed methodology will result in abundant information for solid decision-making that will result in less business risk.

Author Carlos F. Ostertag
Publisher CIAT - Centre International de l'Agriculture Tropicale
Number of Pages 180 pp.
Primary Language French (fr)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agricultural Marketing, Monitoring And Evaluation
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A guide to Marketing Costs and how to calculate them 1993 English (en)

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The intention of this Guide is to explain basic concepts of agricultural marketing costs and marketing margins. It identifies the main types of marketing costs, provides brief advice on how to calculate them and discusses the interpretation of marketing margins.

An understanding of costs and margins is essential for all those involved with agricultural marketing. Farmers seeking to produce new crops need to be aware not only of their likely production costs but also of the costs of marketing these crops. Extension workers need to be able to advise farmers and farmers" groups on such matters. Wholesale and retail traders must, of course, be fully aware of their costs if they are to trade profitably. Finally, government officials concerned with monitoring the efficiency of agricultural markets need to have a full understanding of marketing costs and margins and need to be able to monitor these on a regular basis if they are to propose viable improvements, such as new markets. In part, the aim of this Guide is to correct some of the widely held misunderstandings over marketing costs. Traders' margins are often looked upon as being excessive; frequently this is because the observer lacks a full appreciation of all the costs involved.

This Guide should be particularly useful to marketing officers and extension workers who are called upon during their work to advise farmers on marketing and prices. It is hoped that it will be used by agricultural training colleges for their courses in agricultural marketing.

A guide to Marketing Costs and how to calculate them  -  English (en)

Author Shepherd, A.
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 59 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Product Costing, Costing, Cost Calculation
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Marketing Strategy: Training activities for entrepreneurs Book 1986 English (en)

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This training manual is designed to help facilitators introduce women entrepreneurs to the importance of marketing for business success. An outline training programme of ten sessions is provided, with advice on choosing participants, organising materials, setting training goals and so on.

One of the core elements is the "Marketing Game" which introduces participants to the four elements of the marketing mix - product, price, distribution and promotion. This innovative board game is especially effective with groups of varying literacy skills. More than 100 marketing problems and situations are covered in the game. Other training methods include a marketing story, visits to local businesses and practical activities to develop marketing plans and create marketing messages.

The book contains all the materials needed to conduct the marketing game.

Marketing Strategy: Training activities for entrepreneurs (Amazon)  -  English (en)

Author Kindervatter, S.; Range, M.
Publisher OEF International / UNIFEM
Number of Pages 96 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Enterprise Development, Business Planning
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Marketing Mix Board Game Document 1986

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This game originally appeared as part of the publication “Marketing Strategy Training Activities for Entrepreneurs” by Suzanne Kindervatter with Maggie Range. Designed for women with existing businesses, the game helps participants to explore as many marketing ideas and problems as possible and to increase marketing knowledge by using the 4 Ps of marketing:

  • Product or service – What do you sell?
  • Price – Setting your price to make a profit.
  • Place/distribution – Finding the best way to distribute your product.
  • Promotion – Creating ways to persuade customers to buy your product.

The game is especially effective with groups of varying literacy skills. After playing, participants should be able to identify concrete ways to increase sales and improve practices.

This game has been included as one of the activities in a marketing module made freely available as part of the Get Ahead training package compiled by ILO. The materials provided here are drawn primarily from the original book. There are notes for the trainer, an example game board (from the ILO version), question cards, and some templates to enable a trainer to prepare his or her own question cards. The game can also be purchased in the original book format from Women, Ink at a price of USD 15.50.

Linking farmers to markets English (en)

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Linking farmers to markets  -  English (en)

Author FAO
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Market Linkages, Supply Chain, Marketing, Cooperative
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