Agribusiness and enterprise support

Agribusiness can be defined as farming and the business associated with farming, such as the processing of farm products, the manufacturing of farm equipment and the supply of fertilizers, etc. In other words it refers to a chain of businesses which are directly and indirectly involved in the production, transformation and supply of agricultural products. The focus in this topic will be on will be medium or large scale commercial enterprises and in production may include individual growers, ranchers or dairy farmers; large, fresh produce growers, packers and shippers; aquaculture companies producing seafood; forest product companies growing trees; ornamental plant producers and so on.

On the supply side the topic will cover agricultural input companies such as seed, feed, fertilizer, farm equipment, irrigation, animal pharmaceuticals, livestock handling equipment and horticultural supplies, and on the output side businesses involved in the post-harvest processing of vegetables, fruit, fibre, poultry and meats. The importance of these larger businesses in providing inputs, markets and alternative employment opportunities for rural people is considerable and they are often as in need of advice on preparing business plans and bankable investment proposals as smaller producers.

Library Resources

resource title type year resource
Small and Growing Businesses in Africa: Profiles, Successes and Challenges 2018

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In Sub-Saharan Africa as elsewhere, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play a crucial role in economic development and job creation. However the sector hardly achieves its full potential because of a series of challenges, among which is limited access to financial services, but also because of a more general lack of knowledge about this particular segment. In order to better meet MSMEs’ needs, a first step consists in identifying the profiles, growth paths, success factors and challenges faced by those who managed to turn their microenterprises into small or medium entities, hereinafter referred to as “Small and Growing Business” (SGB) owners. As microenterprises are likely to resort to microfinance institutions (MFIs) to get access to financial services, the study relied on five MFIs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Madagascar to identify a total of 83 SGB owners and interview them individually to get details about their paths.​

Working with Smallholders: A Handbook for Firms Building Sustainable Supply Chains Book 2018

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The purpose of Working with Smallholders handbook is to enable the development of more sustainable, resilient and productive supply chains for agribusinesses and to illustrate the substantial development impact. Smallholder farmers are both an opportunity and a challenge for food and agribusiness companies. The predominance of smallholders in many frontier and emerging markets makes them an integral part of agribusiness supply chains. Many firms source from smallholders or are actively seeking to source from them. Calls for fairer, more inclusive supply chains will hasten this trend. Yet the development and strengthening of smallholder supply chains remains a key challenge for many IFC agribusiness clients. Working with Smallholders handbook compiles innovative solutions and cutting-edge ideas for these challenges. The handbook incorporates a diverse collection of hands-on case studies from across the world regions covering wide variety of agribusiness sectors. The 1st edition of IFC’s Handbook Working with Smallholders (2014) has become one of IFC Agribusiness Advisory Services flagship publications and received positive feedback primarily because it strikes a good balance between serious technical content and an accessible presentation style. In the three years since the original publication there have been numerous changes in approaches and methodologies. We also have a larger compilation of lessons learnt from project implementation. Because of these changes we have prepared the 2nd edition that highlights leading trends and technologies relevant to the work with the smallholders.

Publisher International Finance Corporation
Number of Pages 328 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Smallholder farmers; inclusive supply chains
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A Roadmap for Making Inclusive Finance a Driving Force for Rural Development and Food Security Paper 2018

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Over the years, Développement international Desjardins (DID) has carried out dozens of rural finance technical support projects with numerous partners in highly diversified environments. Based on these observations, DID issued a roadmap designed to guide its action as well as that of its partners and funding agencies in order to increase agricultural yields, associated revenues, and the level of agricultural and financial knowledge among the actors in the system.

This roadmap uses a sector approach aimed at strengthening the overall agricultural finance system. Experience shows, however, that there is no single solution that applies to all situations. Instead, the roadmap indicates the desirable intervention parameters that are likely to have an organizing and sustainable effect in relation to the level of development of the agricultural sector under consideration.

Spore Magazine - Incubation agricole Journal Article 2015 French (fr)

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Le numéro 179 de Spore, le magazine CTA du développement agricole et rural des pays ACP, consacre un dossier aux incubateurs agricoles en tant que tremplins pour les femmes et les jeunes. Les incubateurs offrent un accès facilité à un ensemble de services parmi lesquels des locaux, des équipements et des technologies, des contacts de clients et des fournisseurs, des services financiers, du conseil technique et stratégique, un réseau de professionnels. Ils constituent donc une façon efficace de moderniser l’agriculture des pays ACP, mêlant innovation et entrepreneuriat.

Lien vers la publication  -  French (fr)

Author CTA
Number of Pages 28
Volume / Issue# 179
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Caribbean
Keywords Incubation agricole, Accès aux services financiers, Conseil technique
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Growing inclusive agri-food value chains benefitting African famers and SMEs Toolkit 2014 English (en)

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UNDP AFIM developed and launched the 'African Agribusiness Supplier Development Program’ (AASDP) with its toolkit and training manual earlier this year, which supports smallholders’ and SMEs’ production, productivity and market linkages with larger off-takers and contributes to employment generation, income generation, food security and agricultural transformation.

AFIM has continued to provide support to the development of national Agribusiness Supplier Development Programs in Angola, Kenya and Nigeria, and started operations in 3 new countries - Côte D'Ivoire, DRC and Rwanda. Currently each country has developed a feasibility study and project document and is looking for funding and technical partners in the implementation of the programme.

undp toolkit  -  English (en)

Author Marije Boomsma, Remco Mur, Ellen Mangnus
Publisher UNDP
Number of Pages 196 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agricultural Supply Chain, Agribusiness, Smallholder Farming, Agricultural Value Chains, Small And Medium Enterprises (Smes)
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Growing Africa - Unlocking the Potential of Agribusiness Report 2013

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This report highlights the great potential of the agribusiness sector in Africa. The evidence demonstrates that good policies, a conducive business environment, and strategic support from governments can help agribusiness reach its potential.  The report pursues several lines of analysis: 1) it synthesizes the large body of work on agriculture and agribusiness in Africa; 2)it builds on a diagnosis of specific value chains; 3) 170 agribusiness investments by the Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) in Africa and Southeast Asia are analyzed to gain perspective on the elements of success and failure; 4) the report synthesizes perspectives from the private sector through interviews with 23 leading agribusiness investors and a number of other key informants. The report concludes with offering practical policy advice based on the experience of countries from within and outside Africa.

Author The World Bank
Publisher The World Bank
Number of Pages 162 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, South-eastern Asia
Keywords Agribusiness
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Agribusiness Indicators : Kenya. Agriculture and environmental services Report 2013

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The importance of agriculture in the economies of sub-Saharan African countries cannot be overemphasized. With agriculture accounting for about 65 percent of the region's employment and 75 percent of its domestic trade, significant progress in reducing hunger and poverty across the region depends on the development and transformation of the agricultural sector. Transforming agriculture from largely a subsistence enterprise to a profitable commercial venture is the prerequisite and driving force for accelerated development and sustainable economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The rationale behind the development of agribusiness indicators (ABIs) is to construct indicators for specific factors to support successful, effective private sector involvement in agriculture. The indicators can be used to benchmark and monitor performance in the agricultural sector over time and across countries. The resulting information can provoke knowledge flows and meaningful dialogue among policy makers, government officials, donors, private sector actors, as well as other stakeholders in the agricultural sector. This study is predicated on the fact that agriculture is the backbone of the economies of most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. The ultimate aim is to stimulate debate and dialogue among policy makers in specific African countries to engender change and reform in areas where investment is needed to leverage agribusiness and economic development. This study relied heavily on an extensive secondary data collection and literature review, supplemented by informal surveys to solicit information from a broad spectrum of stakeholders and actors in Kenya's agricultural sector. The review and interviews focused on the factors that the agribusiness indicators team determined to be the most critical for agribusiness development across sub-Saharan Africa, based on extensive scoping missions in three pilot countries (Ghana, Ethiopia, and Mozambique). This report is organized into following chapters: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two presents ABI methodology; chapter three presents findings on the success factors and indicators; and chapter four gives concluding remarks.

Author World Bank
Publisher World Bank
Washington, D.C.
Number of Pages 102 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa
Kenya
Keywords Agribusiness, Agriculture, Agribusiness Finance
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The 5th African Rural and Agricultural Credis Association (AFRACA) Agribanks Forum - Summary of Workshop Proceedings Report 2012

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The 5th AFRACA Agricultural Banks forum was held at the Serena Hotel, Kigali Rwanda between the 24th – 27th July 2012. This report covers the proceedings of this workshop, which is one of the specialized AFRACA programmes that take place every year as part of the organizations goal of improving the rural and agricultural finance environment in Sub Saharan Africa

In this Agricultural Banks workshop, a total of 9 technical papers were shared and covered policy related issues, practical value chain finance cases and the important subject of foreign and local direct investment for food security in Africa.

The objectives of the forum were:

  1. Foster closer and sustainable partnerships between financial and non financial institutions involved in agricultural value chain finance.
  2. Provide an opportunity for creating business relationships between borrowers and lenders, development partners and industry players.
  3. Increase the awareness and learning of key innovations for funding medium and small enterprises through non-traditional banking approaches.
  4. Provide new ideas for development of innovative products that allow significant funding to reach various stages of the value chains in Africa.
  5. Create a deeper appreciation for both Foreign and Local Direct Investment in Agriculture within the continent
  6. Offer participants an opportunity to learn from others on what has worked on innovative value chain financing and how such could be replicated.
  7. Develop innovative ways of empowering the underserved communities especially women
Author AFRACA
Publisher AFRACA
Number of Pages 54 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Agribusiness, Agribusiness Finance, Agricultural Value Chain Finance
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AgriBusiness Forum 2011: Engaging the Private Sector for Africa’s Agri-Food Growth Report 2011

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This publication is the report of the AgriBusiness Forum 2011, which was held in Johannesburg, South Africa from the 16th to the 19th of October 2011. The Forum was jointly organised by EMRC International and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in collaboration with Rabobank Foundation and the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the UN (FAO).

The Forum was organized around topical key issues, including the role of the private sector in stimulating agribusiness-driven inclusive market development; access to finance for Agri-Food growth; innovative technologies; and the development of inclusive business models in the agribusiness sector. The Forum was attended by a large contingent of about 450 participants from almost every single country in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as 20 other countries in Europe, Asia and the Americas. It culminated in the Johannesburg Declaration on inclusive African Agribusiness Public-Private Partnerships, through which representatives from the private sector, government and civil society pledged to work together to develop and leverage Africa’s agricultural potential.

Author EMRC
Publisher EMRC
Number of Pages 35 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Agribusiness, Public-Private Partnership, Investment
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Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity Book 2011

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Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity is a publication from UNIDO. This book analyses the challenges, the potential and opportunities of African agribusiness in the current period of dramatic changes in global agro-industrial markets, and builds a strong case for agribusiness development as a path to Africa’s prosperity. 

The book is based on a “Value Chain” approach to Agribusiness and outlines 8 key issues and 7 Pillars for Agribusiness development in Africa, including promoting effective & innovative sources of financing. It is based on the study of 14 countries and was developed alongside the Africa Agro-Industry and Agribusiness Development Initiative (3ADI).

The MFW4A AgFin Donor Working Group outlines and shall further emphasize the following messages of this book:

Pillar 5 – Promoting Effective and Innovative sources of Financing: Two critical areas would deserve the working group attention: (i) facilitating pooled funding for AgriFinance that uses the public sector to leverage from the private sector; and (ii) creating the enabling condition for local resource accumulation and investment.

Pillar 6 – Stimulating Private Sector Participation: Critical area is enterprise development by creating an enabling environment by fostering macroeconomic stability, efficient financial institutions and systems and capacity to adapt technologies to local conditions.

The book comprises three parts: Part A outlines the current status of agribusiness and agro-industrial activities in Africa, in an historical and global context. It analyses the rationale for diversified and socially-inclusive growth through agribusiness development, along with the key determinants for fostering agribusiness value chain development. The seven chapters constituting Part B of the book analyse the seven development pillars for agribusiness development, in terms of enhancing agricultural productivity; upgrading value chains; exploiting local, regional and international demand; strengthening technological effort and innovation capabilities; promoting effective and innovative financing; stimulating private participation; and improving infrastructure and energy access. This analysis is followed by an agenda for action in Part C, with a key focus on visions, policies, strategies and institutions for Africa’s agribusiness development and the way forward towards converting plans into action.

Author K. Yumkella, P. Kormawa, T. Roepstorff, A. Hawkins
Publisher UNIDO
Number of Pages 347 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Agribusiness, Agribusiness Finance
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A guide to Maize Marketing for extension officers Guideline 2010 English (en)

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Until recently the marketing and storage of the major grain crops in most African countries tended to be in the hands of government agencies. The situation is now changing. Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa are gradually moving to a system where private traders buy crops from farmers, transport those crops to the cities and sell them to processors, millers and consumers. These changes mean that extension workers will have to develop new skills. They will have to be in a position to advise farmers on what crops to grow, on how and where to sell their crops and on how to store their crops. They will need to be able to answer farmers' questions about prices, about whether to store their crops or sell immediately and about where to buy and how to pay for inputs such as fertilizer and seed.

This publication was developed with the liberalised or liberalising marketing systems of Eastern and Southern Africa in mind. However, many of the points it makes are likely to be just as valuable to extension workers in other parts of Africa or, indeed, outside Africa. It provides extension workers with basic information on private-sector grain marketing systems and on crop drying and storage. Emphasis is on maize, but other crops are briefly considered.

A guide to Maize Marketing for extension officers  -  English (en)

Author Shepherd, A.
Publisher Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 111 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Business Advice
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Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural Interventions Report 2010

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This paper provides an in-depth analysis of what is known about the effectiveness of projects aimed at fostering agricultural production and productivity and what has been done to improve the development effectiveness in this area. It then identifies where gaps lie in the existing evidence, what needs to be evaluated in the future, and how this might be done.

Author lnter-American Development Bank (IDB)
Publisher lnter-American Development Bank (IDB)
Number of Pages 177 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agribusiness
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Private Sector Agribusiness Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa Article 2010 English (en)

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This study is an appraisal of private sector investment in agribusiness and agro-industries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It forms part of a larger analysis and work plan of agricultural investment by the Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division (AGS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and other divisions of the Organization. The study aims to provide a holistic and comprehensive overview of private sector participation in the agricultural sector beyond the involvement of transnational corporations (TNCs) in primary production, which was the focus of the recent World Investment Report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, 2009). Specifically, the objectives of the study are:

  • to take stock of private agribusiness investment in SSA;
  • to analyse factors that propel or constrain investments in the sector, which includes a synthesis of policies and strategies relevant to the sector; and
  • to appraise and describe innovative public sector policies, programmes and institutions for stimulating additional private sector agribusiness investment.
working document  -  English (en)

Author Nomathemba Mhlanga
Publisher Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN
Number of Pages 65 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Investment, Agricultural Finance, Agribusiness
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Analysis of the Agribusiness Sector in Southern Russia Report 2009

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This Study was commissioned by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and carried out by the Investment Centre Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), under its cooperation with the EBRD. Its objective was to assess the remaining transition challenges affecting the development of agri-food value chains in Southern Russia. The EBRD required this analysis to establish priorities for future interventions inform investment decisions and identify relevant topics for policy dialogue.

Due to constraints in time and resources, the Study concentrated on two value chains in Southern Russia: the cereal and the meat value chains (including the beef, pork and poultry sectors). The four biggest areas in the Southern Federal Okrug were covered by this Study, namely the Krasnodar krai, the Stavropol krai, the Rostov oblast and the Volgograd oblast. The Study included an informant poll, with 106 questionnaires returned, to assess the development of the cereal and meat industries in the four above regions. Two case studies were carried out in the Rostov area for an in-depth description of the value chains both in the cereal and the meat industries. Finally, a number of interviews were conducted in the Moscow and Rostov oblasts with market analysts, policy makers and the business community. The Study is also based on the review of existing literature and official statistics.

The first section of the Study describes the general situation in the Russian agri-food sector, including major trends in recent years, an overview of agricultural policy and ad hoc governmental measures in reaction to soaring food prices. The second section is a general overview of agri-food development in Southern Russia. The third and fourth sections focus on the analysis of the cereal and meat value chains and the identification of major bottlenecks. The results of the poll are presented in a separate section. The paper ends with a series of conclusions and recommendations.

Agribusiness and Innovation Systems in Africa Paper 2009

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In May 2008, the World Bank Institute (WBI), in collaboration with the Danish Government, Global Development Network, Economic and Social Research Foundation, and other World Bank units, organized a conference in Tanzania on agricultural innovation in Africa. The conference was designed to facilitate learning on key policies, practices, and actors that help enable innovation and technology development in agriculture, with a special focus on agribusiness. The result was to inform various stakeholders on crucial agricultural innovation and technology development issues, and to discuss concrete achievements in these areas with an eye toward replicating and scaling up success in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

To stimulate discussion at the conference, two sets of inputs were prepared in advance: commissioned analytical reports on policies and incentives for fostering innovation within the agricultural sector of the six African countries studied; and innovative case studies of successful technology projects related to agriculture that have been implemented within the six countries.

The objective of the country reports on Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda is to shed light on the dynamics of agricultural innovation, and the impact of public policies and institutions on innovation and value chains, by focusing on agribusiness and by taking the agricultural innovation system concept as the overarching analytical framework. They are based on qualitative interviews with agribusiness leaders with the goal of synthesizing the most vital factors and drivers for agribusiness innovation in SSA. This publication will discuss the major findings of the country reports, link common themes, and distill lessons learned to inform governments, farmers’ organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), research institutes, and donors.

Author Larsen, K., Kim, R., Theus, F.
Publisher The World Bank
Number of Pages 218 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Keywords Agricultural Innovation, Agribusiness, Innovation
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Agricultural Value Chain Finance Book 2007

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Agriculture is increasing linked from the "farm to the fork" through supply chain linkages, each of which add value as the inputs are supplied and the products are produced, harvested, processed, transported, packaged and sold. Finance and other support services are very important. Value chain finance covers the whole range of financial approaches and products that are used both within the value chain as well as the finance which is available because of the existence of integrated value chains. New financial approaches and technologies have been linked to value chains which increase the access and efficiency of finance to both users and providers of the finance as well as reducing the risk to both. Based upon a Latin American level conference on Value Chain Finance organized by FAO with Academia de Centroamerica, RUTA and SERFIRURAL, this document provides a well-writen overview of the concepts and then provides many successful case examples of diverse products and services of value chain finance in Latin America. It concludes with learnings and messages which are applicable for financial institutions, governments, agribusiness leaders, donors and development organizations.

Author Rodolfo Quirós
Publisher FAO and Academia de Centroamerica
Number of Pages 166 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Americas, Central America, Caribbean, Northern America, South America
Keywords Agricultural Value Chain Finance, Agribusiness Finance, Value Chain Finance, Agricultural Value Chains
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Farm Accounting Book 2006

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This book provides an introduction to farm accounting and covers the following topics:

  • balance sheet;
  • depreciation and valuations;
  • business documents;
  • cash analysis book;
  • profit and loss account;
  • improving farm efficiency.

It includes a number of exercises, thus making the book suitable for use in training courses or for self-study. This book should be used in conjunction with "The farm as a commercial enterprise".

Author Gietema, B.
Publisher Agromisa
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Farm Accounting, Commercial Farming, Bookkeeping
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Guía metodológica para el análisis de cadenas productivas Book 2006

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Esta es la segunda versión de la “Guía Metodológica de Análisis de Cadenas Productivas” publicada en Junio del 2004 por la Plataforma RURALTER. Es el resultado de una construcción colectiva iniciada el año 2002 y que fue posible gracias a los aportes de los colaboradores de la plataforma RURALTER y a las experiencias de diversas instituciones de desarrollo en el análisis de cadenas productivas en el Perú, Ecuador, Bolivia y Nicaragua.

Las cadenas productivas no son estructuras que se construyen desde el Estado, sino que existen desde hace mucho tiempo, pues reflejan la realidad de las relaciones entre actores de un sistema de producción comercialización y acceso al mercado.

El enfoque de cadena es pertinente en el contexto actual de evolución de la economía mundial, competitividad, globalización, innovación tecnológica y complejos sistemas agroalimentarios. En esta realidad la agricultura y la ganadería ya no se pueden considerar como elementos separados del resto de la economía.

El análisis de cadenas es sólo una herramienta que permite identificar los puntos críticos que frenan la competitividad y las ventajas competitivas que potencia la cadena productiva, para luego definir e impulsar estrategias de acción concertadas entre los principales actores involucrados.

Esta guía metodológica es una herramienta que permite desarrollar capacidades analíticas en equipos de campo de organizaciones de desarrollo y líderes campesinos. El objetivo de la guía es prepararlos en la identificación de problemas en las cadenas productivas y contribuir a la definición de problemas en las cadenas productivas y contribuir a la definición de estrategias de acción efectiva.

Esta guía permite mejorar la calidad del análisis y contribuir por tanto a mejorar la competitividad de varios productos de primer orden, promoviendo la definición de políticas sectoriales consensuadas entre los diferentes actores de la cadena. Asimismo permite desarrollar las capacidades analíticas de las personas usuarias, para que puedan conocer el funcionamiento de una cadena productiva, identificar sus puntos críticos y sus potencialidades y así contribuir en la definición de propuestas de acción coherentes.

La guía ha tomado en cuenta los enfoques participativos y los de equidad y señala tres fases correspondientes al análisis de cadenas productivas:

  1. Fase preliminar: conformación y preparación que realiza el equipo de trabajo.
  2. Fase central: corresponde al diseño y adaptación de instrumentos y métodos de recolección de información, utilización de herramientas y aplicación de estrategias participativas.
  3. Fase final: brinda herramientas prácticas para analizar al detalle la información recogida en la fase anterior.
Author Damien van der Heyden y Patricia Camacho
Publisher Plataforma RURALTER
Quito, Ecuador
Number of Pages 125 pp.
Primary Language Spanish (es)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agricultural Value Chain, Supply Chain
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The farm as a commercial enterprise Book 2006

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This book provides a simple introduction to farming as a commercial enterprise. It explains the concepts of fixed and variable costs, gross margins and ways to measure profit. The effect of supply and demand on market prices is explored together with the concept of being an entrepreneur. Each chapter includes examples and exercises for which solutions are given at the end. The book can be used as a basis for training courses or it can be used for self-study. There is a companion volume called Farm Accounting.

Author Gietema, B.
Publisher Agromisa
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Farm Accounting, Commercial Farming, Farm Enterprise
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Reader: Agribusiness and Value Chains Paper 2005

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The GTZ defines agribusiness as “all market and private business-orientated entities involved in the production, storage, distribution, and processing of agro-based products; in the supply of production inputs; and in the provision of services, e.g. extension or research.”

Agribusiness support is considered to be a part of a country’s economic development concept and is targeted towards the creation of jobs and income in mainly rural areas. In line with a common business concept, the guiding principle is the market orientation of all support activities. Agribusiness is a component of rural development and forms part of a strategy to improve regional economic development and ensure a safe food supply. It aims to:

  • address market and private business-orientated entities directly
  • stimulate business opportunities through improved frame conditions in rural areas
  • ensure a safe and high-quality food supply for the consumer

The paper suggests that with opening of markets, the pressure to rationalise agriculture has reached even the remotest rural areas anywhere in the world. Agricultural sectors are faced with growing demands: they need to raise quality standards for their products, have more transparent production and handling processes, while sometimes having to produce these food products in a deteriorating natural environment.

The discussion begins with the promotion of agribusiness strategies – looking at recognising the potential of products and markets, general constraints and principles of agribusiness strategies, scenarios and GTZ areas of agribusiness. It then moves onto considering value chains – theory of the value chain approach, knowledge management in value chains and guidelines for the improvement of value chains.

The latter half of the paper begins by discussing service provision and development in agricultural value chains and sets out the Value Chain Analysis Development approach (VADE) devised by GTZ. VADE is described as an analytical instrument to systematically enhance market access and competitiveness of small to medium scale rural producers and processors. Both public-private and private-private partnerships are also analysed before the paper ends with key links and literature.

Economic Concepts in Market-Oriented Farming Book 2005

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This training book notes that ultimately, today it is the final customer/user of farm products who guides what is to be produced by the farmer. It is important that farmers produce the right quantity and quality to satisfy the consumer. This calls for improved farm management skills so that farmers can select new opportunities and have a better understanding of how to deal with the market. The book also states that the principles of economics are fundamental in understanding some of the dilemmas facing farmers and how problems can be addressed.

The book sets out to explain basic concepts of economics and how they can lead to better market-orientated farm management. Farmers need to develop their management skills to compete better in the free market economy. The underlying lecture notes introduce the reader to some of the concepts and principles of economics and their use in commercial farming.

The book is broken down into the following 5 chapters:

  • Charter 1: Introduction to Economics and Market-Orientated Farming
  • Chapter 2: The Basic Economic Concepts for Market-Orientated Farm Management
  • Chapter 3: Understanding the Market
  • Chapter 4: Application Examples of Economic Concepts Related to Typical Farmer Decisions
  • Chapter 5: Summary & Conclusions; Further Readings

The author is a lecturer in economics and marketing at the John Cabot University in Rome and the material in this book is intended for use in a university or training college environment. It is particularly suitable as an introductory course for agricultural students.

Author Hilmi, M.
Publisher Agromisa
Number of Pages 77 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agribusiness, Value Chain Finance, Economics, Marketing
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Business management for small-scale agro-processors Book 2005

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There is a great diversity of agro-processing worldwide and in some countries it accounts for more than 60% of the employment. Many people start agro-businesses at a small scale, often working from home and selling to neighbours and friends via a roadside stall or in a local marketplace. Characteristically, small-scale production is labour-intensive as there is rarely sufficient money to invest in specialized processing equipment. The quality of products may vary and small enterprises often do not have consistency of supply and so cannot cater for wholesalers or retailers who require guaranteed deliveries of consistent quality. Small-scale processors also may not have contracts with raw material or packaging suppliers but buy materials from local markets.

There are many millions of these businesses in emerging economies, and with advice and assistance some of them can develop into larger scale enterprises. However, when small scale processors try to scale up operations a series of issues may be encountered. For example, products may be in direct competition with those of other processors when displayed on retail shelves and so the quality of the packaging becomes much more important. Retailers may negotiate lower prices than processors have experienced when making direct sales to consumers.

Any scaling up of operations brings new challenges: typically these businesses employ more people and the owner must have staff management skills; more careful control is needed over business finance, especially production and distribution costs; business management and financial planning skills are required to stay ahead of competitors; investment decisions are needed for both new equipment and improved packaging. The larger production volumes require production planning skills and may create a need for environmental protection through waste management. Other issues, such as market research, product development and the business image may also increase in importance.

This booklet is aimed at micro- and small-scale entrepreneurs who wish to improve their business operations. They may not require the sophisticated business management techniques that are used by large-scale manufacturers, but simple procedures to plan, monitor and control production and quality, manage finance, inventories, equipment and staff, will be vital if they wish to grow successfully. Chapters in the booklet address each of these issues and in the last chapter specific problems of certain types of agro-processing enterprises are reviewed. The book contains many worked examples of calculations and suggested formats for record forms.

The booklet will be a useful addition to training resources for local and international NGOs, or for staff at government institutions who work with small enterprises. Policy makers or students on business, agriculture and food-related courses may also find the booklet useful.

Repertoire des sources de financemnet au Rwanda pour l'agribusiness Report 2004

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Le présent document est un répertoire des sources financières nationales, sous régionales ou internationales disponibles pour le financement du secteur de l’agribusiness. Il retrace les possibilités de financement et les conditions d’intervention. Il s’inscrit donc comme un support d’information disponible pour les agro-entrepreneurs.

Ce document est composé de trois parties :

  • le secteur bancaire ;
  • les institutions financières non bancaires ;
  • et les institutions internationales d’appui financier.
A Guide to SME Business Finance Guideline 2004

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The document is designed to provide small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with an introduction to debt and equity funding, along with an outline of the information typically required in order to obtain funds.

The Guide was originally produced to meet a need identified by the Mining Technology Services Action Agenda (MTSAA), which, during industry consultations carried out as part of the strategic phase of the MTSAA, determined that access to capital and finance was a key factor in the future success and sustainability of mining technology companies, a sector dominated by SMEs. Although the Guide was produced as a result of the MTSAA’s findings, it can equally be used by SMEs in other sectors. It is an introduction and general guide only, as there will be differences between SME needs, and there will also be differences in the products and the requirements of the different financial institutions, which will change as new financial products are developed.

The authors stress that access to finance can be critical to business growth and success, particularly for start-up companies. It can increase the speed at which a company grows, fund additional product development, or simply provide enough capital on hand to run the business until the break-even point is reached. Larger companies with an established performance record and assets find it much easier to obtain finance than small start-up companies, who may have unproven management and few tangible assets.

The Guide begins by discussing options for financing business growth looks at both debt and equity products. The following section examines the business of finance and aims to highlight the key considerations of finance providers, who seek to balance risk and credit quality – it stresses the need to provide quality information. The next two sections then build on this and provide guidance on both business planning and the main financial information requirements – the appendices include a comprehensive section on the main financial ratios used to assess financial performance, providing definitions as well as formulas.

Author Commonwealth of Australia
Publisher Commonwealth of Australia
Number of Pages 39 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Oceania, Australia and New Zealand
Australia
Keywords Financial Performance, Equity, Business Planning
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Egg marketing: A guide for the production and sale of eggs Book 2003

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This new guide provides information and advice to those concerned with the production and sale of eggs in developing countries with an emphasis on marketing, i.e. producing in order to meet market demand. Augmenting the production of laying chickens and improving farmers’ returns by effective production planning and marketing will improve farm incomes.

Augmenting the production of laying chickens is an important objective in helping to meet the nutritional needs of growing populations in developing countries. These chickens are prolific, easy to raise and their output can be generally expanded more rapidly and easily than that of other livestock. Furthermore, they are adaptable to various climates and altitudes. Poultry raising is an excellent diversification activity for small farmers. In addition, poultry raising can often be combined with other types of farming and offers the possibility to raise extra revenue for farmers.

The land and capital requirements to start a small enterprise are not great, yet farmers who market eggs on a regular basis have a valuable source of ready cash. Eggs provide an inexpensive and valuable source of nourishment. Before new or improved marketing methods are introduced, an accurate survey of current industry conditions should be made, and an understanding of production and consumption patterns and factors that have determined these should be developed. Marketing improvement programmes may range in their objectives from relatively simple changes in handling and packaging methods to a reorganization of the marketing channels. Frequently, important marketing improvements can be effected simply by correcting specific handling, transport, packaging, grading and storing methods. For marketing to be efficient, it must satisfy consumers' demands and preferences. (Author's Abstract)

Author FAO
Publisher FAO
Number of Pages 121 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Marketing, Diversification, Enterprise Development
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Market Research for agroprocessors Book 2003

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Before any agroprocessing venture is started, or before an existing venture decides to expand its product line, an understanding of the market for the planned products is essential. Companies and individual processors need to feel confident that people will accept and want to buy their products. They need to be sure that they can sell what they produce at prices that give them a good profit. They need to have a realistic idea of the quantities they can sell and be sure that the facilities they build and the equipment they buy are suitable for those quantities, being neither far too large nor too small. They need to know where they can sell their products and how best to distribute them to consumers. Last, but not least, they need to be certain that the raw materials, other ingredients and packaging they require will be available when needed, at a price that permits profitable processing and marketing.

"Market research for agroprocessors" describes, in fairly simple terms, the market research that agroprocessors can carry out, and some of the ways of doing such research. Market research can never guarantee success but it can certainly increase the likelihood that the new business will turn out to be profitable. It can identify at an early stage those processing ideas that are unlikely to lead to profitable operations.

The guide is addressed to entrepreneurs and companies who are planning to develop or expand medium-sized agroprocessing businesses. It is also intended to be used by banks who need to understand the potential market before lending for agroprocessing; by consulting firms and individuals offering market research services in developing countries and by government agencies and policymakers interested in developing the agroprocessing sector. Extension workers and NGOs who are supporting individuals and groups planning to set up small rural processing ventures could also use parts of this guide.

Author Shepherd, A.
Publisher Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 114 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Market Research, Business Planning, Enterprise Development
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¿Es la certificación algo para mí? Una guía practica sobre por qué, cómo y con quién certificar productos para la exportación Document 2003

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La certificación sirve para demostrar que un producto ha sido producido de una cierta manera o tiene ciertas características. La certificación permite diferenciar el producto certificado de otros productos, lo que podría ser útil a la hora de promocionarlo en distintos mercados.

Muchos hombres y mujeres productores piensan que el mercado para comercializar productos certificados es muy complejo y que las oportunidades y los requisitos relacionados con los programas de certificación y a veces no son claros. Además, los productores y las productoras, generalmente, no saben si los requisitos son obligatorios, es decir creados como una ley o regla oficial en el país que importa los productos o voluntarios, lo cual significa que se tiene la opción de cumplir o no los requisitos. Tampoco conocen las ventajas y limitaciones de estos tipos de certificación.

Por otro lado, la gran cantidad de requisitos para importar, que han establecido los diferentes países, complica la actividad para los productores que desean exportar.

El objetivo de esta guía es ofrecer a los y las productores/as centroamericanos/as información general sobre los principales programas de certificación voluntaria en agricultura incluyendo contactos que puedan consultar para obtener más información. Se describen seis importantes programas de certificación voluntaria, incluyendo Agricultura Orgánica, Comercio Justo, Certificación de la Alianza de Bosques, Certificación de SA8000 EUREPGAP e ISO14001.Un cuadro resumen de las principales características de los programas se muestra al final de la guía.

Estudio de Mercados Agroindustriales Lesson 2003

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Antes de que se comience cualquier empresa agroindustrial, o antes de que una empresa existente decida ampliar su línea de productos, es esencial tener una comprensión del mercado para el cual van dirigido los productos que planean ofrecer. Las compañías y los agro-industriales individuales necesitan sentirse confiados de que la gente aceptará y deseará comprar sus productos. Necesitan estar seguros que pueden vender lo que producen y a precios que les proporcionen un buen beneficio. Necesitan tener una idea realista de las cantidades que pueden vender y estar seguros que las instalaciones que construyen y el equipo que compran son convenientes para esas cantidades, no siendo ni demasiado grandes ni demasiado pequeños. Asimismo, necesitan saber dónde pueden vender sus productos y cuál es la mejor manera posible de poder distribuirlos a sus consumidores. Por último, pero no menos importante; necesitan estar seguros que las materias primas, otros ingredientes y el empaquetado que ellos requieren, estarán disponibles cuando sean necesario y a un precio que les permita un proceso y una comercialización provechosos.

Este manual de comercialización o mercadeo para agroindustriales, describe en términos bastante simples el estudio de mercado que las personas involucradas en la agroindustria pueden realizar y adicionalmente, las metodologías para realizar tal investigación. El estudio de mercados puede nunca garantizar el éxito, pero ciertamente puede aumentar la probabilidad que el nuevo negocio resultará ser provechoso. Asimismo, puede permitir identificar en una primera fase aquellas ideas sobre el agro-procesamiento, que son poco probables de conducir a operaciones rentables y de esa manera descartarlas.

La guía se dirige a empresarios y a compañías que están planeando desarrollar o ampliar negocios de agroindustria de tamaño mediano. También puede ser utilizada por los bancos que necesitan entender el mercado potencial antes de otorgar créditos a negocios de agroindustria. Asimismo se recomienda la lectura de esta guía a las firmas de consultoría y los individuos que ofrecen servicios de estudio de mercados en países en vías de desarrollo; así como a los organismos públicos y a los formuladores de políticas interesados en desarrollar el sector agroindustrial. Los consejeros agrícolas y los ONGs que están apoyando a los individuos y a grupos que planean instalar empresas de proceso rurales pequeñas, también pueden encontrar de utilidad algunas partes de esta guía.

Modelos de Rentabilidad Financiera para Agricultura y Agroindustria Lesson 2002

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Este documento corresponde a una presentación sobre temas de organización empresarial elaborado por el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical – CIAT. El documento explica cómo se desarrollan los modelos de rentabilidad financiera adaptados tanto para pequeños agricultores o empresas o industria agrícolas. También indica cómo el pequeño productor o empresario puede desarrollarlos y la importancia de los modelos. También ofrece una amplia explicación sobre la interpretación de la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR), cómo se calcula ésta y cómo se logra el Valor Presente Neto (VPN).

El documento presenta brevemente la definición de un modelo de rentabilidad financiera, su uso, y la importancia del cálculo de la rentabilidad financiera.

También define el significado de la tasa interna de retorno (TIR), una interpretación grafica de la misma y cómo calcularla. Asimismo, se presentan dos ejemplos de cálculo del TIR para ilustrar su uso.

Posteriormente se define que es el Valor Presente Neto (VPN), una interpretación gráfica del mismo, y se proveen dos ejemplos del cálculo del VPN que permiten ilustrar la importancia del uso de este indicador financiero.

Luego el documento explica cómo se desarrollan los modelos de rentabilidad financiera, para lo cual se proporcionan una serie de pautas o decisiones preliminares a tener en cuenta, así como la forma de organizar la información obtenida, la cual presenta en un gráfico ilustrativo de manera posterior, y algunas pautas finales a tener en cuenta.

Este documento se recomienda para aquellos encargados de capacitación y profesionales de extensión que provean conocimientos y asistencia en materia de manejo o gestión financiera a agricultores y empresarios agrícolas. Asimismo puede ser útil para oficiales de crédito que brinden servicios de asesoría a sus clientes en materia de gestión financiera.

Directrices para la producción, elaboración, etiquetado y comercialización de alimentos producidos orgánicamente Document 2002

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“Orgánico” es un término de etiquetado que indica que los productos se han producido con arreglo a las normas de la producción orgánica, y que están certificados por un organismo o autoridad de certificación debidamente constituida. La agricultura orgánica se basa en la reducción al mínimo del empleo de insumos externos, y evita el empleo de fertilizantes y abonos orgánicos.

Este documento comprende una serie de directrices que tienen la finalidad de ofrecer un enfoque concertado sobre los requisitos que competen a la producción, el etiquetado y la producción de propiedades de los alimentos producidos orgánicamente. A través de estas directrices se pretende:

  • Proteger a los consumidores y productores contra algún tipo de fraude en el mercado, y contra declaraciones de propiedades no demostradas.
  • Asegurar que todas las fases de la producción, preparación, almacenamiento, transporte y comercialización estén sujetas a inspección y cumplan con estas directrices.
  • Armonizar las disposiciones para la producción, certificación, identificación y etiquetado de productos de producción orgánica.
  • Proporcionar unas directrices internacionales para sistemas de control de alimentos orgánicos, con objeto de facilitar el reconocimiento de sistemas nacionales como equivalentes a los efectos de las Importaciones.
  • Mantener y mejorar los sistemas de agricultura orgánica en cada país para que contribuyan a la preservación en el ámbito local y mundial.

Estas directrices establecen principios de producción orgánica en granja y para las fases de preparación, almacenamiento, transporte, etiquetado y comercialización, y aportan una indicación de los insumos permitidos para la fertilización y acondicionamiento del suelo, para combatir las plagas de las plantas y las enfermedades, y como aditivos alimentarios y coadyuvantes de elaboración.

Financial Profitability Models for Agriculture and Agroindustry Presentation 2001

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This easy to follow presentation forms part of the Rural Agroenterprise Development Project of CIAT and walks the reader through how to develop financial profitability models for agriculture and agroindustry.

It begins by considering what a financial profitability models are and why they are developed. It suggests that financial profitability can help with investment decisions, such as whether investing in a given business will lead to a higher return than if funds were left where they are or which of two investment options offers the higher return.

In particular, the document focuses on two calculations: Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV). It begins with a brief look at interpreting the two, before providing details on how they are calculated and giving two examples of each.

Finally, the presentation discusses how to develop financial profitability models – it examines a number of factors that need to be estimated or included and highlights common items that form part of business accounts but should not be included in these calculations i.e. the need to focus on cashflows rather than pure accounting items. The ultimate page compares agricultural and agroindustry models.

Author Carlos F. Ostertag
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agriculture, Financial Development, Agro-Industries, Money Management
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El Comercio Justo en Europa Report 2000

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Este informe fue elaborado para el Proyecto de Agroempresas Rurales del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Se presenta una base de datos que pretende contribuir a formar una perspectiva integral sobre el comercio justo y de productos orgánicos; y las oportunidades que tienen los pequeños productores organizados en los países en vías de desarrollo de participar en el mismo.

Para una mejor utilización de la base de datos, este informe brinda información general sobre las características y evolución del comercio justo en Europa. Se conceptualiza al comercio justo, se explora en sus antecedentes y se analiza las instituciones involucradas, la forma de operación, los principios que lo rigen y el perfil de los productores involucrados.

Además se brinda en la última parte un breve análisis de las regiones y países en el Sur priorizados por las organizaciones del Norte. Se comenta sobre las tendencias en la estructura del comercio justo, la demanda de productos, los grupos meta en el Sur y sobre las organizaciones de coordinación existentes.

Se hace especial mención a la situación en Honduras, Nicaragua, Colombia, Perú y Ecuador en América Latina; Zimbabwe y Uganda en África; y Vietnam en Asia. Finalmente se explica el contenido, la estructura y forma de operación de la base de datos de las organizaciones del comercio justo en Europa.

Agroindustria y pequeña agricultura: Experiencias y opciones de transformación Article 1998

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El presente trabajo sintetiza una serie de estudios sobre diferentes experiencias de articulación entre la pequeña producción agrícola y la agroindustria en ocho países de la región (Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guyana, Jamaica, México, Perú, y Trinidad y Tobago) y tiene como objetivo servir de base para impulsar una política que sitúe a la agroindustria como un agente de transformación productiva de la pequeña agricultura, mediante la introducción de nuevos cultivos y mejores tecnologías, y la reconversión consiguiente de sus patrones tradicionales de producción.

En el primer capítulo se definen los cambios que ha experimentado el contexto macroeconómico de los países en cuestión, y a caracterizar el contexto sectorial, destacando la gran heterogeneidad de las unidades productivas y la imperfección de los mercados rurales de productos y factores.

En el siguiente capítulo, se fundamenta la propuesta de inducir a la agroindustria a constituirse en factor de cambio. Entre esos elementos destaca el rol potencial de la pequeña agricultura como proveedora de insumos, el de la agroindustria como demandante, y el de los factores que mueven a agroindustrias y agricultores a establecer, de modo espontáneo, distintas formas de acuerdo.

El capítulo tercero elabora una tipología de productos y de cadenas agroindustriales que, según se estima, se prestan especialmente para la mencionada articulación. En esa tipología se consideran tanto las características de los productos como la capacidad de las cadenas agroindustriales de tener un impacto significativo sobre los pequeños productores con tierras subutilizadas y potencialmente aprovechables.

En el capítulo cuarto, referido a las modalidades de abastecimiento, se examinan los factores que mueven a las empresas agroindustriales a decidirse sea por la integración vertical, por la compra en el mercado abierto (spot) o por la agricultura de contrato con grandes, medianos o pequeños agricultores.

El último capítulo está destinado a esbozar los lineamientos de una política orientada al desarrollo de la agricultura de contrato o de otras formas de articulación que refuercen los vínculos entre la agroindustria moderna y los pequeños productores con recursos agrícolas subutilizados.

Guidelines for small-scale fruit and vegetable processors Book 1997 English (en)

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One purpose of this book is to document improved ways of processing fruits and vegetables at a scale that is appropriate for families and other groups of people to earn a daily income. This includes methods of business planning, work organization, marketing and quality assurance that are likely to be unfamiliar to traditional processors, but which are essential to ensure successful and profitable production. The selection of suitable products for small scale manufacture and the processes chosen to make them, require very careful consideration. It is not sufficient to assume, as many 'advisers' do, that simply because there is a surplus of a raw material each year, a viable fruit and vegetable processing venture can be created to use up the excess. There must be a demand for the processed food which is clearly identified before a business is set up. Otherwise the most likely result is to produce a processed commodity that no-one wants to buy with substantial financial losses to those involved.

The book is divided into two parts: first a description of some of the problems and issues that face people involved in home processing, together with some suggested solutions; and secondly a more detailed description of the various aspects that are involved in setting up a small food processing enterprise. There are sections on

  • Food security, nutrition and health
  • Selecting products and production methods
  • Conducting a feasibility study
  • Legal aspects
  • Establishing production facilities
  • Managing production and quality assurance
  • Contracts with suppliers and retailers
  • Marketing and record-keeping

In general the types of products that are suitable for small scale production are those which have a significantly higher value when processed. For example fruits and vegetables have a low price when in their raw state, but can be processed into a range of snackfoods, dried foods, juices, pickles, chutneys etc., which have a higher value. The high added-value means that the amount of food that must be processed to earn a reasonable income is relatively small. Hence the size and type of equipment required to operate at this scale can kept to levels that are affordable to most aspiring entrepreneurs.

Guidelines for small-scale fruit and vegetable processors  -  English (en)

Author Fellows, P.
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agribusiness, Agricultural Value Chains, Microenterprise, Food Processing
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Agricultural and Food Marketing Management Document 1997 English (en)

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Ce livre est le deuxième d'une série à l'origine préparé par un projet de formation de la FAO pour une utilisation dans les universités et les instituts de gestion en Afrique orientale et australe. Ils sont adaptés pour être utilisés comme textes de base pour enseigner aux élèves et aussi dans la préparation de cours de formation à la gestion de courte durée. Ce deuxième livre examine l'importance du marketing dans le développement et la structure institutionnelle souvent trouvé dans le système de commercialisation. Les chapitres comprennent:

Agricoles et la commercialisation des aliments
La libéralisation du marché
Stratégie de marketing, planification et contrôle
Développement de nouveaux produits
Comportement Acheteur
Commercialisation des produits agricoles
Gestion des produits
Tarifs décisions
Channel Management Et Distribution physique
marketing Communications
Recherche en marketing
Frais de commercialisation et les marges
Ce matériau est le plus adapté à utiliser dans des cours de premier cycle et de troisième cycle. Il est pertinent pour les élèves de la commercialisation agricole, l'économie agricole, l'agro-industrie, la gestion et les études commerciales. Chaque chapitre comprend un résumé, les termes clés, l'examen des questions et un glossaire.

Le livre de texte peut être commandé en version papier ou lu comme un fichier html en ligne. Chacun des textes marketing et de l'agroalimentaire dans cette série peut être complétée par des ensembles supplémentaires d'aides à l'enseignement pour les universités ou autres établissements d'enseignement. Est disponible pour chaque texte est un Tuteur Manuel (US $ 14), contenant tous les exercices, avec leurs solutions, et une boîte de généraux Maîtres Transparence (20 US $).

Agricultural and Food Marketing Management  -  English (en)

Author Crawford, I.M.
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 290 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global
Keywords Agricultural Marketing, Food Marketing, Product Development, Pricing
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Basic finance for marketers Book 1997 English (en)

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This book is the first in a series originally prepared by an FAO training project for use in universities and management institutes in Eastern and Southern Africa. They are suitable for use as core texts when teaching students and also in the preparation of short-duration management training courses. The first book introduces the basic principles and techniques of financing and accounting which would enable marketers to be aware of the financial implications of decision making.

Chapters include:

  • Financial, managerial accounting and reporting
  • Cash flow accounting
  • Budgetary control
  • Investment decisions - capital budgeting
  • Sources of finance

This material is pitched at quite a high academic level and is relevant for larger businesses. Students would be able to assist marketers to evaluate present and alternative marketing strategies, as well as control present and plan for future marketing activities. The text contains worked and unworked examples, exercises and a glossary of the key terms used.

The text book may be ordered in hard copy or read as an html file online. Each of the Marketing and Agribusiness texts can be complemented by additional sets of teaching aids for universities or other educational institutions. A Tutor's Manual (US$14), containing all the exercises, together with their solutions, and a box of Overhead Transparency Masters (US$20) is available for each text.

Basic finance for marketers  -  English (en)

Author Carter, S, Macdonald, N and Cheng, D
Publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Number of Pages 124 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Southern Africa
Keywords Agribusiness Finance, Accounting Principles, Marketing
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Agricultural and Food Marketing Management Document 1977 English (en)

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This book is the second in a series originally prepared by an FAO training project for use in universities and management institutes in Eastern and Southern Africa. They are suitable for use as core texts when teaching students and also in the preparation of short-duration management training courses. This second book reviews the importance of marketing in development and the institutional structure often found in the marketing system. Chapters include:

  • Agricultural And Food Marketing
  • Market Liberalisation
  • Marketing Strategy, Planning And Control
  • New Product Development
  • Buyer Behaviour
  • Commodity Marketing
  • Product Management
  • Pricing Decisions
  • Channel Management And Physical Distribution
  • Marketing Communications
  • Marketing Research
  • Marketing Costs And Margins

This material is most suited to use in undergraduate and postgraduate degree courses. It is relevant to students of agricultural marketing, agricultural economics, agribusiness, management and business studies. Each chapter includes a summary, key terms, review questions and a glossary.

The text book may be ordered in hard copy or read as an html file online. Each of the Marketing and Agribusiness texts in this series can be complemented by additional sets of teaching aids for universities or other educational institutions. A Tutor's Manual (US$14), containing all the exercises, together with their solutions, and a box of Overhead Transparency Masters (US$20) is available for each text.

agribusiness text 2  -  English (en)

Author Crawford, I.M.
Publisher FAO
Number of Pages 290 pp.
Primary Language English (en)
Region / Country Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Southern Africa
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Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Website English (en) Spanish (es) French (fr)

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The concept of Good Agricultural Practices may serve as a reference tool for deciding, at each step in the production process, on practices and/or outcomes that are environmentally sustainable and socially acceptable. The implementation of GAP should therefore contribute to Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD).

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)  -  English (en)

Buenas Practicas Agricolas  -  Spanish (es)

Bonnes Pratiques Agricoles  -  French (fr)

KickStart - The Tools to End Poverty Website English (en)

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KickStart’s mission is to lift millions of people in Africa out of poverty, quickly, cost-effectively and sustainably.

KickStart.org  -  English (en)

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