Le financement agricole

Agricultural finance is a subset of rural finance dedicated to financing agricultural related activities such as input supply, production, distribution, wholesale, processing and marketing. Financial service providers face distinct challenges when dealing with this sector. For example, the seasonal nature of production and the dependence on biological processes and natural resources leaves producers subject to events beyond their control such as droughts, floods or diseases. Land is the most widely accepted asset for use as collateral but there are often problems with title and property rights in rural areas and small loans rarely justify the costs of legal action to call in a claim on land and then liquidate it. Moveable assets such as livestock and equipment are also fairly high risk without proof of ownership and insurance cover. Because developing countries have large rural populations, policy-makers have frequently tried to intervene in agricultural finance with policies to provide subsidised credit through a variety of channels. Such programmes often created more problems than they solved and there was a move away from supply led credit towards a market based approach relying on commercially viable financial institutions. Governments are still tempted to control interest rates, however, and intervene in other ways, so policies relating to agricultural finance remain an important issue.

Library Resources

titre de la ressource type année ressource
Crop Receipts - A New Financing Instrument for Africa Report 2019

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Access to finance remains a critical bottleneck for farmers and agribusinesses in Africa. Farmers, processors, and other agricultural value chain actors need better access to a broad suite of financial services for working and investment capital and for managing risks if they are to become more productive and contribute to global food security. While access to financial services is a frequent constraint at all segments of agricultural value chains, pre-harvest financing at the farm level is perhaps the biggest gap, as evidenced by the low usage of agricultural inputs and equipment in Africa. Improved access to pre-harvest financing is critical for farmers to use high quality inputs and equipment more quickly and on a larger scale. Most farmers often resort to self-financing or using other personal income. Such strategies have proven insufficient to foster broad-based agricultural growth and multipliers for poverty reduction, food and nutrition security, and overall economic growth. One promising innovation in pre-harvest finance is Brazil’s Cedula de Produto Rural, which is commonly referred to as crop receipt (CR). A CR is a bond issued by a farmer or farmer organization (FO) to deliver a certain amount of farm produce (crop or livestock) or the cash equivalent thereof at a future date. Against this promise, the buyer or financier advances a certain amount of cash or inputs to be settled at maturity of the bond. The bond can be issued to a processor, an offtaker, an input supplier, a bank, or a financial investor that provides pre-harvest finance against it. This study includes six chapters as follows:
Chapter 1 provides details on the background and purpose of the study;
Chapter 2 analyzes the international experiences with CRs;
Chapter 3 discusses generic entry points for CRs in Africa;
Chapters 4 and 5 present specific opportunities for CRs in Zambia and Uganda;
Chapter 6 presents the study’s main findings and offers recommendations.

Auteur Hollinger Frank; Gross Adam Lee; Toyoda Makiko
Éditeur International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Nombre de pages 108 pages
Volume / Issue# 1
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Africa
Mots-clés Crop receipts, Access To Finance
Ressources connexes
How to Influence Decision Makers in Agricultural Finance Brief 2018

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Previous research by the Mastercard Foundation Rural and Agricultural Finance Learning Lab (the Lab) and the Initiative for Smallholder Finance (ISF) estimates that formal financial institutions and value chain actors only meet one sixth of the USD 200 billion smallholder finance need. To address the gap, stakeholders in the rural and agricultural finance sector need to make bold strategic shifts, such as vastly expanding customer-centric financial services to smallholder farmers, pursuing progressive partnerships, and maintaining a sharp focus on smallholder farmers when scaling innovative models and technologies.

How can matching grants in agriculture facilitate access to finance? 2018

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Matching grants are an instrument aimed at promoting private sector development which has been used extensively over the past years, in particular for agriculture development. A matching grant is defined as “a one-off, non-reimbursable transfer to project beneficiaries, for a specific purpose, based on the condition that the recipient makes a contribution for the same purpose”. These grants can be used for a variety of activities including technical assistance, investment in assets or financing of working capital. A recent review showed that the WBG had supported 106 private-sector development matching grant projects over the past decades, including 21 in the agriculture sector. While agriculture projects account for a small portion of the total number projects, total grant financing dedicated to agriculture reaches 650 million USD or almost twice the volume of those outside of agriculture. In addition, the proportion of matching grants projects supporting agriculture has significantly increased in the 2000s. Recent interest for this instrument to support agriculture might be due to growing concerns about forms of support which distort financial markets such as interest rate subsidies, as well to the compatibility of such agricultural subsidies with World Trade Organization requirements.

However, there is very limited rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of matching grants, both on additionality and sustainability. The issue of additionality can be summarized as :“do matching grants crowd out private investment by subsidizing investment that would have been made anyway?”. On the other hand, the issue of sustainability asks: “Can supported projects be self-sufficient after the matching grants project closes”? The conclusion from the recent WBG review indicates that “experience has shown that matching grants rarely yield the type of broad and durable economic benefits that would justify the subsidization of private enterprises with public funds.”

While matching grants are often used as substitutes for well-functioning financial markets, literature suggests that matching grants do not sufficiently work as enablers of financial markets. Indeed, while the primary objective of matching grants is often to increase the income of beneficiaries in the absence of well-functioning financial markets, matching grants should also be designed in a way that help beneficiaries build relationships with financial institutions so that their future expenses and investments can be undertaken without the need for grants. However, a recent report on matching grants for productive alliances in Latin America and the Caribbean indicates that “In their design, almost all Productive Alliance projects mention the goal of enhancing producers’ access to commercial financial services to

Financing Agriculture for a More Profitable Rural Economy Brief 2018

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Farmers and other actors in agricultural value chains find it difficult to access or provide the financial services the sector needs – services that are critical for the development of agricultural products, and are integral to upstream and downstream processes. At the Brussels Development Briefing Revolutionising finance for agri-value chains, experts considered innovative solutions that could improve the livelihoods of smallholder and rural producers, and promote economic transformation in the poorest countries.​

Responsible Agriculture Finance for Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania and Uganda Paper 2017

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This report analyses input credit for smallholder farmers in Tanzania and Uganda. Agricultural inputs, either cash or in-kind, are provided on credit and the farmer reimburses the provider after harvest. Input credit products for farmers in Tanzania and Uganda are often ‘bundled’ with other compulsory services and fees. As a result, smallholder farmers may not fully understand the pricing structure and compulsory nature of bundled credit products, and may be taking on more risk than they can handle. It appears there may be a number of smallholder farmers who are indeed struggling to comprehend input credit bundles and the associated relatively high but variable risks of input credit. The objective of the study was to improve The MasterCard Foundation’s (MCF) understanding of how agricultural finance can be delivered in a responsible way in line with the Client Protection Principles. It was found that MCF could encourage governments: to establish price ceilings and price floors on agricultural products; to relax current restrictions on micro-finance institutions; to create a certification program for crop inputs, and to set up a formalized customer complaints department about concerns with financial service providers.

Auteur The MasterCard Foundation
Éditeur The MasterCard Foundation
Nombre de pages 60 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa
Tanzania, Uganda
Mots-clés Agriculture, Agricultural Finance, input credit
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Finance Video Series Multimédia 2017 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The AgriFin agricultural finance video series offers short and engaging videos that explore a range of agriculture finance topics, ranging from lending to farmers and assessing agricultural risks, all the way through to designing products and services for agricultural clients. 

Each video is supported by a selectoin of additional in-depth technical materials. The videos are less than four-minutes long and are offered in English.

Videos are especially relevant for loan officers, relationship managers, credit teams, and any banker dealing with agricultural clients.

Agricultural Finance Video Series  -  English (en)

Innovations pour une finance agricole inclusive et mécanismes d’atténuation des risques - Le cas de Tamwil El Fellah au Maroc Case Study 2016 French (fr)

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Le Plan Maroc Vert du Gouvernement du Maroc souligne le rôle important del’agriculture et définit des stratégies visant à promouvoir le développement de ce secteur en y attirant des investissements nationaux et internationaux et en organisant les acteurs privés en chaînes de valeur concurrentielles et rentables. Malgré ces efforts, cependant, de grands défis restent à relever. L’un des principaux concerne la disponibilité de services financiers pour les acteurs ruraux de l’agriculture. Le capital moyen nécessaire chaque année pour financer l'agriculture est estimé à 30 milliards de Dirhams. Les finances du secteur bancaire marocain représente seulement 17 pour cent de cette demande et le Crédit Agricole du Maroc est responsable d'environ 80 pour cent de cette part du financement à l'agriculture. Une large part de la population rurale, composée des ménages les plus pauvres, continue de voir ses besoins financiers principalement satisfaits par des fournisseurs de services financiers informels, le secteur financier formel n’étant pas en mesure de proposer, dans les zones rurales, des produits adaptés et répondant aux besoins d’un développement durable. L’étude décrit un modèle particulièrement innovant de fourniture de services financiers aux ménages ruraux pauvres et dépendant de l’agriculture – le modèle de Tamwil El Fellah (TAF), une société créée par le Groupe Crédit Agricole du Maroc (GCAM). L'analyse présentée vise à mettre en évidence des principes importants qui peuvent être appliqués par les institutions financières et les organismes de soutien, afin de promouvoir des services financiers ruraux et agricoles inclusifs dans les pays en développement.

Lien vers la publication  -  French (fr)

Auteur FAO
Éditeur FAO
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 35
Langue principale French (fr)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Northern Africa
Mots-clés Gestion Des Risques, Stratégies de développement rural, Partenariat public-privé, Finance rurale
Ressources connexes
Unlocking Local Currency Lending: Foreign Exchange Risk in Agricultural Finance Technical Note 2016 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The note emerged from conversations with stakeholders at various levels of the agricultural value chain who expressed concerns about managing the foreign exchange (FX) exposure in their businesses – traders who pre-finance farmers and financiers who lend to smallholders and agri-businesses, among others. While a reasonable body of literature covers management of FX risk in microfinance, relatively little research has been conducted targeting FX risk management in smallholder agricultural lending. This briefing seeks to lay the foundation for further research, collaboration, and experimentation that can lead to the development and testing of solutions for managing the FX risk inherent in agricultural value chains. This briefing outlines the particular challenges of FX management in agriculture and profiles the landscape of existing solutions – drawing broadly from microfinance and industry solutions when relevant. The note concludes with recommendations for how lenders, donors, and other partners can develop interventions that will help mitigate these FX risks in the short to medium term.

Unlocking Local Currency Lending: Foreign Exchange Risk in Agricultural Finance  -  English (en)

Auteur Initiative for Smallholder Finance
Éditeur Initiative for Smallholder Finance
Nombre de pages 11 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Agriculture, SMEs, Risk Management, Foreign Exchange Risk
Ressources connexes
Initiative pour l'adaptation de l'agriculture Africaine (AAA) aux changements climatiques Guideline 2016 French (fr)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Si la COP21 est reconnue par la communauté internationale comme une étape historique en raison des nombreuses décisions qui ont été prises, notamment sur la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, l’engagement d’un financement annuel de 100 milliards de dollars US pour les pays vulnérables et l’équité dans l’allocation des moyens financiers entre l’atténuation et l’adaptation, la COP22 sera le moment idoine pour montrer que les pays parties sont solidaires pour la mise en oeuvre des décisions de Paris. La COP22 sera la COP de l’action pour l’adaptation de l’Afrique aux effets négatifs du changement climatique. C’est également la première fois que les pays ont exprimé leurs besoins pour la lutte contre les changements climatiques à travers leurs contributions nationales déterminées (NDC). L’analyse de ces NDC a montré que les pays africains non seulement s’engagent pour contribuer au financement, mais mettent en priorité les programmes d’adaptation, d’agriculture et de sécurité alimentaire. L’initiative pour l’Adaptation de l'Agriculture Africaine (AAA) aux changements climatiques répond aux besoins exprimés par les pays africains.

Afin de faciliter la mise en place de ces bonnes pratiques, un livre blanc a été publié. Née d’un colloque dont l’objectif était de poser les fondements scientifiques et techniques, la publication propose une synthèse des données et des solutions mises en avant, dans la perspective des négociations de la COP22 et au-delà.

Site de l'initiative AAA  -  French (fr)

Auteur Initiative AAA
Nombre de pages 15
Langue principale French (fr)
Région / Pays Global, Africa
Mots-clés initiative AAA, livre blanc, Maroc
Ressources connexes
Access to Finance for Cocoa Farmers in Indonesia: Agribusiness Financing Facility Baseline Report Paper 2016

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This report provides quantitative data on the use of financial services and other access to finance data from participating farmers in the Agribusiness Financing Facility (AFF), a subcomponent of Swisscontact’s Sustainable Cocoa Production Program (SCPP). The objective of the AFF is to increase access to finance for cocoa farmers in Indonesia. Baseline data and first conclusions of the AFF are summarized in this report.

As a general conclusion, overall access to finance is still low for Cocoa Farmers. 26.78% of the farmers are financially included. 23.83% of the farmers have formal savings, while 7.16% have formal loans from both banks and cooperatives.

The report further provides assessment of bottlenecks and interventions for improved access to finance, looking into capacity building of farmers and financial institutions, loan eligibility of farmers, branchless banking, savings and other interventions.

Plan Maroc vert : Les grands principes et avancées de la stratégie agricole marocaine Report 2016 French (fr)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

En 2008, le Maroc a adopté le Plan Maroc Vert, qui vise à faire de l’agriculture un des moteurs de croissance de l’économie nationale dans les quinze prochaines années. Pour atteindre ses objectifs ambitieux, le Plan Maroc Vert cible les exploitations familiales de petite et moyenne taille et les exploitations entrepreneuriales disposant de grandes surfaces et d’un accès aux capitaux. En quelques années, le Maroc a considérablement augmenté les investissements publics alloués au secteur agricole, ce qui a notamment eu pour résultat une hausse des surfaces cultivées, suscitant l’intérêt de nombreux acteurs du développement agricole ouest-africains. Cette synthèse revient sur les origines et les grands principes du Plan Maroc Vert. Elle s’intéresse ensuite aux principaux acquis de la première phase de cette stratégie, avant d’interroger les enseignements que l’Afrique de l’Ouest pourrait potentiellement en tirer.

Lien vers la publication  -  French (fr)

Agricultural Value Chain Finance - a Guide for Bankers Training Guide 2016 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Agricultural Value Chain Finance - A Guide for Bankers has been developed in partnership with Bankaool, Mexico, HBL Bank, Pakistan and HDFC Bank, India. It provides: 

  • practical, evidence-based guidance to financial institutions engaging in agricultural value chain finance (AVCF) 
  • comprehensive picture of agricultural value chains to enable financial institutions to adapt financial products to the specific demands of value chain actors 
  • examples of field-tested AVCF products and procedures that have shown value or promise for financial institutions 

The AVCF Guide can be used by financial institutions' staff, including senior management to understand the strategic benefits of value chain finance, heads of lending departments and their teams to implement value chain finance, other bank staff for training and self-study.

The AVCF Guide is also useful for development professionals supporting agricultural finance projects. The Guide is available in two formats - an online version which provides a high level overview of each step of the VCF process - and the full Guide which provides more detailed technical information and background materials on the mechanics of financing agricultural value chains.

Agricultural Value Chain Finance - a Guide for Bankers  -  English (en)

Las finanzas agrícolas y rurales en América Latina Reference Material 2016 Spanish (es)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

La Asociación Latinoamericana de Instituciones Financieras para el Desarrollo (ALIDE) presentó en la Conferencia Internacional sobre Mejores Prácticas en Finanzas Rurales y Agrícolas su informe titulado “Las finanzas agrícolas y rurales en América Latina”. En este destacan a la banca de desarrollo agrícola como una institución pública con alto potencial para contribuir al desarrollo rural, así como también presentan algunas mejores prácticas de financiamiento agrícola  y los premios ALIDE. 

Link del informe  -  Spanish (es)

Auteur Asociación Latinoamericana de Instituciones Financieras para el Desarrollo (ALIDE)
Éditeur ALIDE
Nombre de pages 26
Langue principale Spanish (es)
Région / Pays Global, Americas, South America
Mots-clés Banca de desarrollo agrícola, Desarollo rural, Financiamiento agrícola
Ressources connexes
Financing Agribusiness in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities, Challenges and Investment Models Document 2016 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This study examines the financing needs of farmers and off-farm agribusiness enterprises, the role of different actors in catalyzing sustainable and inclusive agribusiness finance, and the mix of financial products and services offered. It uses multiple analytic methods, including targeted surveys of value chain actors, interviews with businesses, and desk research to get an in-depth look at the demand for and sources of agribusiness finance, and to identify constraints, challenges, and gaps based on both demand and supply constraints. On the demand side, data was obtained by interviewing actors in farming and off-farm agribusiness operating in four value chains: cashew in Côte d’Ivoire, maize in Ghana, cassava in Nigeria, and rice in Sierra Leone. Data on the supply of agribusiness financing was obtained from a literature review of agriculture and agribusiness finance; a desk review of annual reports and other relevant documents from 34 commercial banks in four countries, 21 agricultural investment funds, and 21 multinational agribusiness firms with operations in Africa and direct interviews with staff from a subsample of these organizations.

Financing Agribusiness in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities, Challenges and Investment Models  -  English (en)

Auteur The World Bank Group
Éditeur The World Bank Group
Washington, DC.
Nombre de pages 95 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Mots-clés Agribusiness, Agribusiness Finance, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Investment, Access To Finance
Ressources connexes
Note de synthèse GCAM - Modèle économique marocain au service du monde agricole et rural Document 2016 French (fr)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Cette note de synthèse présente le modèle développé par le groupe Crédit Agricole du Maroc (GCAM) dans sa composante liée au financement de l’agriculture. Le GCAM a en particulier développé un système de "méso finance" à travers la filiale « Tamwil El Fellah S.A. ». Celle ci vise principalement des petites et moyennes exploitations agricoles, non éligibles au financement bancaire classique en raison du manque de garanties réelles et de leur vulnérabilité aux aléas climatiques, de marchés…

Lien vers la publication  -  French (fr)

Agricultural Finance Policy Coordination in Africa Report 2015

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This synthesis report presents a set of five country case studies (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Morocco, and Zambia), commissioned to advance the work of the Making Finance Work for Africa’s (MFW4A) Agricultural Finance Stakeholder Working Group’s (AFSWG) Institutional Development Focus Group. The overarching objective of this case study work are to assess the extent of policy coordination in each of the five countries selected, to enable stakeholders to take well-informed decisions and actions, to strengthen policy and its coordination through either existing or new agricultural finance policy coordinating bodies, and to provide recommendations the AFSWG for its planned advocacy and implementation phase. The set of case studies underlying this policy brief was commissioned by MFW4A supported by GIZ on behalf of BMZ.

Auteur MFW4A, GIZ, BMZ
Éditeur MFW4A, GIZ, BMZ
Nombre de pages 37 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Africa
Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Morocco, Zambia
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Agriculture
Ressources connexes
Financing Agriculture and Rural Areas in Sub-Saharan Africa Progress: challenges and the way forward Paper 2015

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The purpose of this paper is to summarise innovations, along with their strengths and limitations, used to improve access to sustainable financial services for agriculture and rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa, with a special focus on smallholders.

Section II reviews the impediments to the progress of developing rural financial markets, followed by a section outlining the evolution in paradigm shifts in analysing such markets. Section III summarises the role and constraints of the major categories of financial services providers beginning with the most formal institutions, banks, and ending with the least formal, savings and loan groups. The use of financial linkages and agents, the explosive growth of mobile phones for financial services and the emergence of investment mechanisms concludes the section. Section IV reviews strategies to reduce and manage risks including insurance, partial credit guarantees, warehouse receipts systems and, finally, the emergence of credit scoring to reduce the information costs of credit screening. Section V summarises the status of financial infrastructure investments made to benefit the entire financial system in collateral registries and credit bureaus. Section VI discusses the impediments for term finance and why the lack of land for collateral is one of the explanations. The final section outlines the way forward with an emphasis on savings groups and mobile finance.

Auteur Richard L. Meyer
Éditeur IIED
London, England
Nombre de pages 38 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Rural Finance, Savings, credit
Ressources connexes
Acceso a finanzas para pequeños productores rurales Document 2015

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

El estudio presenta las lecciones aprendidas para orientar futuras iniciativas a partir de la ejecución proyectosde asesoramiento para financiamiento de actividades agropecuarias y microfinanzas por parte del IFC  como prioridad estratégicapara promover la agricultura en mercados emergentes y lograr el doble objetivo del Grupo del Banco Mundial de reducir la pobreza y generar una prosperidad compartida. Para tal fin, el IFC adopta un enfoque de ecosistemas para el desarrollo agropecuario a través de inversiones holísticas y soluciones de asesoramiento tanto para instituciones financieras como para empresas agropecuarias. IFC está ejecutando activamente 23 proyectos de asesoramiento para financiamiento de actividades agropecuarias y microfinanzas. 

The MasterCard Foundation: Rural and Agricultural Finance Strategy Document 2015 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The MasterCard Foundation is devoting more of its resources to promoting financial inclusion in rural parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Smallholder farmers, those who have less than one hectare of land, want to grow more, earn more, and live better. One key obstacle they face is being unable to acquire better seeds or the right fertilizer because they do not have the financial tools to help them do so.

Whether it is holding a savings account, having the ability to borrow or send money safely and affordably, or being able to buy insurance to protect against the unforeseen, smallholder farmers and other poor people need access to modern financial products and services to improve their lives.

With their partner organizations, the MasterCard Foundation supports programs that enable people to have access to those services. They also work with financial services providers (banks, microfinance institutions, insurance companies) to help them increase their ability to deliver the financial services that meet smallholders needs.

This strategy paper for rural and agricultural finance in Sub-Saharan Africa examines the challenges to expanding access and the opportunities there are to make that happen. The potential to bring about positive change is enormous.

The MasterCard Foundation: Rural and Agricultural Finance Strategy  -  English (en)

Auteur The MasterCard Foundation
Éditeur The MasterCard Foundation
Nombre de pages 16 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Africa
Mots-clés Financial Inclusion, Rural Finance, Agricultural Finance
Ressources connexes
Financing Agriculture Forum 2015: Presentations Presentation 2015 English (en)

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More than 150 agricultural banking professionals gathered for the AgriFin Financing Agricultural Forum held in Istanbul from May 11th through the 15th, 2015. Participants discussed opportunities for banks to use agricultural value chains to facilitate and expand lending to agriculture in a profitable and secure manner.

Throughout the event, leading banks from across the globe shared their expertise, know-how, processes and tools related to Agricultural Value Chain Finance (VCF). Attendees from over 50 countries active in agricultural finance shared lessons and built relationships with their peers.  

Key themes that arising from the Forum are:

  • Agricultural Value Chain Finance (VCF) offers significant opportunities for banks to expand their lending to the agricultural sectors by using aggregators to reduce transaction costs, while reducing risk by overcoming asymmetrical informational hurdles.
  • There are many ways for banks to support agricultural enterprises and large and small farmers, including direct lending relationships. Value chain finance is just one mechanism that allows banks to reach smallholders and provide critical services to them.
  • Introducing VCF is not just about getting the technical aspects of such lending right, it requires buy-in from across the institution, not least the banks senior management who need to support it and provide the space for it to take shape and grow.
  • It takes time to get it right - there is no one model, but a variety of means of making this work, and all institutions will need to approach this with the knowledge that they may not get it right first time, but will have to adapt and evolve as they grow their knowledge and learning.
  • Often the demand for VCF doesn't come from the borrowers (the farmers) but from large aggregators and off-takers, who are existing clients of the banks. VCF adds the opportunity to provide value-add to existing clients, assisting them in strengthening their value chain by supporting their suppliers and partners.
  • VCF is not just about lending, but it also offers great opportunities for banks to cross-sell other products and services to their clients. 

Please click on the link below for the presentations. 

Forum presentations  -  English (en)

New Trends in Agricultural Finance Report 2015

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Agricultural finance is crucial to support the growth of the agricultural sector. Indeed, it is essential for food security, job creation, and overall economic growth. This synthesis report presents a summary of research studies on five key areas of agricultural finance innovation prepared under the G20 Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI), as well as the presentations and discussions of these study findings during the “G20 Roundtable on Innovations in Agricultural Finance” convened on September 9, 2015 in Antalya, Turkey by the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Finance Sub-Group.

After a brief background for setting the scene, the five key research areas presented in the synthesis2 are: a) Understanding Demand of Smallholder Households, b) Digital Financial Services, c) Financing for Women in the Agricultural Sector, d) Value Chain Finance, and e) Agricultural Insurance. The five areas of emphasis each examine the innovations and trends, with the first three looking at the needs and opportunities for small farmers and women and ways in improve their inclusion into the financial system. The fourth area presents an approach and innovative tools for effective agricultural lending and market inclusion, and the fifth area focuses on innovations in using agricultural insurance as a tool to address one of the most important risks that inhibit agricultural finance, especially for smallholder households. Given the diversity of topics, the format of the research papers and summaries vary with the theme. The synthesis ends with key messages about the trends and lessons, including recommendations for policy interventions and further research and development.

This report was produced jointly by GIZ, the World Bank Group, and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) on behalf of the SME Finance Sub-Group of the G20 Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI).

Éditeur Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI)
Nombre de pages 48 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Innovation, digital financial services, Agricultural Value Chains
Ressources connexes
Financial Innovation and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Rural Northern Nigeria Paper 2015

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This paper examines the effect of financial innovation on poverty reduction in rural northern Nigeria. Households from this part of the world are farmers hence, exposed to the vagaries of Climate Change. Assessing whether or not the poorest income quintile (the poorest of the poor) benefit from existing financial inclusive strategies, would inform policy makers and direct the attention of microfinance entrepreneurs to better innovate products that would increase financial inclusiveness and reduce poverty in developing countries.

Auteur Abraham, T.
Éditeur Making Finance Work For Africa
Nombre de pages 38 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Financial Services, financial innovation
Ressources connexes
Sistema Nacional de crédito agropecuario Document 2014

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

El documento pretende dar los lineamientos que permitan guiar la reforma del sistema de financiamiento agropecuario colombiano mismo que busca  i) contar con un Sistema Financiero Agropecuario que represente la realidad del sector, ii) contar una oferta dinámica de recursos e instrumentos financieros para pequeños productores y iii) desarrollar una política integral de gestión de riesgo. Para tal fin, las propuestas de política se enmarcaron en a) el reajuste institucional que busca el fortalecimiento y especialización de las entidades formuladoras y ejecutoras de la política de financiamiento del sector agropecuario para ofrecer productos financieros de forma  eficiente a la población rural, b) la profundización financiera que busca la orientación de recursos y diseño de instrumentos financieros de acuerdo a las necesidades del productor y c) la gestión de riesgos cuyo objetivo es construir un modelo de gestión de riesgos para el sector agropecuario.

Auteur Dirección de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible
Éditeur Dirección de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible
Nombre de pages 64
Langue principale Spanish (es)
Région / Pays Global, Americas, South America
Colombia
Mots-clés Sistema Crédito Agropecuario Colombia
Ressources connexes
Rapport de synthese:coordination des politiques de finance agricole en Afrique Report 2014 French (fr)

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Ce rapport de synthèse présente un ensemble de cinq études de cas de pays (Burkina Faso, Ethiopie, Ghana, Maroc, et la Zambie), pour faire avancer les travaux du groupe de travail des parties prenantes sur la finance agricole de MFW4A. L'objectif de ce rapport est de donner aux parties prenantes de la finance agricole, au niveau national, les moyens de renforcer les politiques et d'améliorer la coordination de ces politiques, tout en apportant des éléments de contexte et des orientations pertinentes, dans l'optique de la phase de mise en œuvre et de plaidoyer du groupe de travail. Ce rapport de synthèse se base sur cinq études de cas commandées par MFW4A, avec le soutien de la GIZ (mandatée par BMZ).

Lien vers la publication  -  French (fr)

Auteur MFW4A in collaboration with GIZ
Nombre de pages 42
Langue principale French (fr)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Burkina Faso, Zambia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Morocco
Mots-clés Finance rurale, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Policies, Agricultural Financing, Financial Policy
Ressources connexes
Finance for Food-Towards New Agricultural and Rural Finance Book 2014 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The book explores the ways to work for the inclusion of smallholder farmers in particular and the rural population in general that allow for accelerated agricultural growth. This book starts with the overview of the global trends in agricultural finance and it focuses on institutional and process innovations dealing with agricultural risk and the use of modern technology to improve financial services in rural areas.

book  -  English (en)

The Role of Government in Developing Agricultural Finance Brief 2014

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This briefing analyzes the development of agricultural finance in these three countries to distill from their example policy recommendations for how governments can meet the demand for agricultural finance while driving broader agricultural, economic, and political growth in their countries.

Auteur The Initiative for Smallholder Finance
Éditeur The Initiative for Smallholder Finance
Nombre de pages 13 pp.
Volume / Issue# 4
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
United States of America, Germany, Korea, South
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance
Ressources connexes
Designing and Delivering Agriculture Finance Products 2014

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This resource book can act as a useful guide to MFIs engaged in providing financial services to the poor, particularly agricultural finance; community based organisations engaged in aggregation of farm produce and other practitioners in the area of agricultural financing. The intended benefits of the resource book are to help the audience in understanding clients’ perspective, understand the concept of value chains and usage of the tool of value chain analysis, identify opportunities and develop these into a product concept, use pilot testing to gauge clients’ feedback on the product and its impact on organisation; and roll-out of the product successfully with known benefits and impacts.

Auteur P. Prasoon, A. Pareek, A. Natu et al.
Éditeur MicroSave
Nombre de pages 85 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agriculture Finance Products, Agriculture, Agricultural Value Chain, Agricultural Finance
Ressources connexes
Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers: Learning from the Experiences of Microfinance Institutions in Latin America Report 2014 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The study intends to identify and disseminate the best practices of MFIs that have successfully implemented agricultural lending operations targeting smallholders in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The study main focus was on smallholders in loose value chains and subsistence farmers in order to support replication and expansion of scalable approaches. IFC research study seeks to understand the motivations of MFIs that venture into agricultural finance, how the products they offer have been structured, and how they were implemented, with a specific focus on agricultural finance programs and products that are designed for smallholders in loose value chains and non-commercial (subsistence) farmers. In addition, the study also highlights areas of technical assistance and other forms of donor support that may affect MFIs’ effectiveness in reaching smallholders. At the end, the paper provides the key recommendations for MFIs serving or looking to serve smallholder farmers.

ifc study  -  English (en)

Auteur Varangis, P., Kioko, M. et al.
Éditeur International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
Nombre de pages 84 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Americas, Central America, Caribbean, South America
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Product Development, Market Research, Rural Finance
Ressources connexes
Le financement de l’agriculture par les banques et les établissements de microfinance en Afrique Paper 2014 English (en)

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Un guide pour l’analyste financier en charge d’un dossier de financement agricole

L’auteur présente cinq facteurs déterminants pour la réussite d’un établissement de microfinance ou d’une banque agricole ; précise les démarches d’un analyste financier sur un dossier agricole ; détaille la manière d’évaluer trois aspects importants : le risque, le patrimoine du promoteur agricole et la rentabilité de l’activité agricole.

Financement agricole methodologie : outil d'analyse  -  English (en)

Revisiting Agricultural Finance 2014 English (en)

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This report, from the Fin4Ag Conference 2014, seeks to highlight some of the challenges and opportunities that producers, traders, banks and other financiers face in a sector that is fast transforming itself. This issue explores topics such as warehouse receipt financing, funds in the value chain, crop insurance, agricultural regulation and commodity traders.

Report  -  English (en)

Finance for Food: Towards New Agricultural and Rural Finance Book 2014 English (en)

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The book “Finance for Food: Towards New Agricultural and Rural Finance”, which is the result of the KfW Symposium ”Finance for Food”. The book focuses on three main issues: first, on institutional and process innovations dealing with agricultural risk and the use of modern technology to improve financial services in rural areas. Second, it examines the distinct risks associated with agricultural finance and how to assess and mitigate them. Third, it focuses on possible distribution channels for reaching the rural poor with modern technology. This includes mobile banking as well as scoring to increase efficiency and outreach in agricultural finance.

Finance for Food Book  -  English (en)

Auteur Doris Köhn
Éditeur KFW Development Bank and Springer
Nombre de pages 293 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Risk, Rural Areas, food, Agricultural Insurance
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2012 Report 2013

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Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2012, transformation of the agricultural sector: the role of agricultural finance. This year report examines various initiative that have been taken to imporve financial sector support to investment and business operations in the Ugandan agricultural sector in 2012.

Auteur Richard Roberts and Robert Ocaya
Éditeur Bank of Uganda
Kampala, Uganda
Nombre de pages 178 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Uganda
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Investment
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Value Chain Finance Strategy and Design Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The technical note aims to help country programme managers and project design teams to understand the transformation of agriculture and modern value chains and how this knowledge can be used to benefit the financial access and delivery processes; how to develop value chain financial services that benefit all types of farmers and agribusiness firms within value chains and the country as a whole; and the best way to develop a programme implementation strategy that will strengthen priority value chains through interventions that address capacity needs and financing, policy and support infrastructure requirements.

This technical note serves as a guide to the design of appropriate programme interventions that apply VCF approaches to the development of competitive agricultural value chains. It emphasizes interventions that promote financial inclusiveness and the overall development goals of governments, as well as those of technical and funding agencies.

Rural finance: challenges, opportunities and the role of the lawyer Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This technical brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it summarizes key finding from a three-year microfinance lawyer training programme implemented by the International Development Law Organization. During this programme, the role of the legal system in promoting greater access to finance was explored.

Auteur FAO
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 3 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Legal Framework, Rural Finance, Financial Regulations
Ressources connexes
Credit Guarantee Systems for Agriculture and Rural Enterprise Development: Appraisal and Stability Lessons Technical Note 2012

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This brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it discusses the different types of Credit Guarantee Systems (CGSs) and considers their application to and impacts on agricultural and rural enterprise development, emphasizing financial performance and sustainability. It also draws some lessons in the design and management of CGSs and concludes by making policy recommendations. The analysis is based on a study conducted by FAO on 16 case studies of guarantee funds in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Eastern Europe.

Auteur FAO
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 3 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Credit Guarantee Scheme, Rural Credit, Financial Development
Ressources connexes
Financing Agriculture Journal Article 2012 English (en)

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"Financing Agriculture", as readers are aware, is one of the oldest journal on Agriculture and Rural Development published by AFC since 1968 covering wide range of issues relating to agriculture, rural development and social sectors. In view of the changing socio-economic conditions in rural India, Financing Agriculture is being positioned as a national journal on agri business which will continue to contribute to the growth of agriculture, rural development, microfinance, livelihood, environment, forestry and rural entrepreneurship along with social sectors.

It is planned to increase the periodicity of the journal from bi-monthly to monthly shortly so that our readers are updated on regular basis.

For the article selection, follow the link bellow.

financing agriculture journal  -  English (en)

Auteur Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd. (AFC)
Éditeur Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd. (AFC)
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Asia, Southern Asia
India
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance
Ressources connexes
Creating Access to Agricultural Finance - Based on a horizontal study of Cambodia, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia Case Study 2012 English (en)

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The study intends to draw broad lessons from the history of public participation and the support provided by international donors for agricultural finance in numerous countries. It also make a diagnostic of the current situation, put forward the reasons for inadequacy between supply and demand for financial services in the sector and analyse the various solutions that have been found and  submit proposals for the creation of financial products that are responsive to the agricultural sector’s needs and constraints. It elaborates on the elements that are key to innovative agricultural finance: reduce delivery costs, adapt to agricultural growth patterns and cash flow cycles and use value chains to ensure proper loan repayment.

Creating Access to Agricultural Finance  -  English (en)

Auteur Reuben Jessop, Boubacar Diallo, Marjan Duursma, Abdallah Mallek, Job Harms, Bert van Manen
Éditeur AFD
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Cambodia, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Innovations
Ressources connexes
Catalyzing smallholder agricultural finance Paper 2012 English (en)

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The study makes an attempt to identify several approaches or growth pathways for deploying investments to address smallholder finance. Based on a global review of cases, the report make recommendations on how donors, impact investors, multinational buyers, and commercial and social lenders can collaborate in different contexts to enable the provision of financial services to smallholders.

study  -  English (en)

Subsidies as an Instrument in Agriculture Finance: Approaches and Lessons Learnt Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it highlights lessons learned in the use of subsidies as instruments of agricultural development finance. It then proposes how to strengthen agricultural finance particularly for small-scale farmers through five major approaches: micro-insurance and weather-index-based insurance, credit guarantee funds, warehouse receipts, specialized agricultural development banks and agricultural investment funds. It is based on a study conducted by FAO and financed by IFAD and presents emerging recommendations for policy makers.

Financing agricultural marketing Technical Note 2012

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This technical brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it summarizes results from a study conducted by FAO analyzing 15 case studies during 2005 in Africa, Asia and Latin America to ascertain whether the lack of finance disrupted traders’ marketing activities of grain (primarily rice) and horticultural produce.

Auteur FAO
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 3 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Trade Finance, Agricultural Marketing, Rural Finance
Ressources connexes
Internal Operational Challenges Around Rural and Agricultural Finance: Reflections on Opportunity International’s AgFinance Operations in Africa Brief 2012 English (en)

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The brief discusses the internal operational challenges of implementing rural and agricultural finance (RAF) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This Brief highlights the need to assess the country’s economic and political environment, the value chain, MFI’s operational capacity, and do a cost-benefit analysis before entering into RAF.T It concludes that the challenges imposed by RAF require the concerted effort of all portions of the bank. Also, it recommends that the whole core management team be committed to institutionalizing these new capabilities into bank staff and systems.

brief  -  English (en)

Auteur J. Magnay, D. Pond, I. Townsend, G. Yamamoto | Microlinks
Nombre de pages 10 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Environment Impact
Ressources connexes
Study of African and International Innovations and Best Practices in Increasing Access to Rural and Agricultural Finance Study Guide 2012 English (en)

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This study documents African and international innovations and best practices at the policy, industry, supplier and client level to improve access to agricultural and rural financial services in southern African countries. The overall objective of this study is to address and provide comprehensive answers to the questions as: What categories of public and private sector intervention are needed at the macro, meso, micro and client levels in order to address the rural and agricultural finance challenges in the region? What are the best African and international current practices in respect of each of these categories of intervention? What are the circumstances and main drivers that have enabled these practices to develop and bear fruit? What is needed to enable such practices to be applied with success in the six study countries?

Study of African and International Innovations  -  English (en)

Auteur Robert Stone, Jason Agar, Abigail Carpio, Mateo Cabello and Janet Hayes
Éditeur Oxford Policy Management
Nombre de pages 196 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Rural Finance, Innovations
Ressources connexes
En quoi l’agriculture intelligente face au climat pratiquée par les petits exploitants est-elle différente? Document 2012 French (fr)

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Il est de plus en plus admis que le changement climatique est en train de transformer le contexte dans lequel s’inscrit le développement rural; il remodèle les paysages physiques et socio-économiques et rend plus coûteux le développement de la petite agriculture. Mais il n’existe guère de consensus quant à la manière dont les pratiques de l’agriculture paysanne devraient s’adapter. Une question est souvent posée: en quoi l’agriculture “intelligente face au climat” pratiquée par les petits exploitants est-elle vraiment différente et va au-delà des meilleures pratiques habituelles du développement? Le présent article suggère trois principales réorientations:

  • Premièrement, au moment de l’élaboration des politiques et des projets, il faut tenir compte des risques plus élevés et avoir recours à des évaluations de la vulnérabilité et à une modélisation plus fréquente des divers scénarios climatiques, tout en cherchant à mieux comprendre la corrélation entre l’agriculture paysanne et le contexte plus général;
  • Deuxièmement, cette évaluation plus approfondie des risques interdépendants devrait permettre aux petits exploitants de reproduire à plus grande échelle les méthodes d’intensification durable de l’agriculture comportant de multiples avantages, qui ont fait leurs preuves. Ces méthodes peuvent renforcer la capacité d’adaptation au changement climatique, moyennant la gestion des systèmes concurrents d’utilisation du sol à l’échelle du paysage, tout en réduisant la pauvreté, améliorant la biodiversité, accroissant les rendements et réduisant les émissions de gaz à effet de serre;
  • Troisièmement, le changement climatique, auquel s’ajoute l’austérité budgétaire, est en train de remodeler l’architecture du financement public (et potentiellement privé) du développement international, ce qui nécessite:
  1. des initiatives nouvelles pour permettre aux petits exploitants de bénéficier réellement du financement climat, afin que les activités à avantages multiples soient récompensées et que les coûts afférents à la transition et les risques liés au changement de pratiques agricoles soient en partie compensés; et
  2. des moyens plus adaptés pour matérialiser puis mesurer une vaste gamme d’avantages multiples, qui vont au-delà de l’impact habituel sur la pauvreté et les rendements.
Lire la publication en ligne  -  French (fr)

Auteur FIDA
Éditeur IFAD
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 23
Langue principale French (fr)
Région / Pays Global
Italy
Mots-clés Agriculture écologique
Ressources connexes
Creating Access to Agricultural Finance - Based on a horizontal study of Cambodia, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia Case Study 2012 English (en)

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The study intends to draw broad lessons from the history of public participation and the support provided by international donors for agricultural finance in numerous countries. It also make a diagnostic of the current situation, put forward the reasons for inadequacy between supply and demand for financial services in the sector and analyse the various solutions that have been found and  submit proposals for the creation of financial products that are responsive to the agricultural sector’s needs and constraints. It elaborates on the elements that are key to innovative agricultural finance: reduce delivery costs, adapt to agricultural growth patterns and cash flow cycles and use value chains to ensure proper loan repayment.

Creating Access to Agricultural Finance  -  English (en)

Auteur Reuben Jessop, Boubacar Diallo, Marjan Duursma, Abdallah Mallek, Job Harms, Bert van Manen
Éditeur AFD
Nombre de pages 122 pp.
Volume / Issue# 14
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Innovations
Ressources connexes
Rural finance and poverty reduction Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This technical brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it summarizes lessons from FAO work over the past years on how rural finance may facilitate poverty reduction. It target audience consists of development practitioners implementing related projects in the field.

Agricultural Investment Funds for Developing Countries Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it assesses some lessons relevant for development agencies, governments and investors on setting up Agricultural Investment Funds (AIFs) and creating a policy and regulatory environment that stimulates agricultural investments. The brief summarizes the results from a FAO study analyzing the performance of 31 agricultural investment funds in developing countries.

Auteur FAO
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 4 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Investment Decisions, Equity Finance
Ressources connexes
Taking Stock of USAID's Rural and Agricultural Finance Initiatives Report 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This study takes stock of USAID’s rural and agricultural finance initiatives from missions around the world as well as from USAID headquarters.  It corresponds with the study “Rural and Agricultural Finance: Taking Stock of Five Years of Innovation,” which catalogues innovations in rural finance both by international donor-funded projects as well as private initiatives.  This paper explores the recent and current USAID projects that address the issue of rural finance, and looks at how the projects are expanding access to rural finance. It ends with some key conclusions looking across projects to provide insights that can inform USAID’s rural finance strategy.

Rural finance research Technical Note 2012

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This brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it summarizes key discussions held during an international conference organized by FAO in collaboration with the Ford Foundation and IFAD that explores the role of researchers in expanding access to finance in rural areas of developing countries. It is aimed at researchers and those agencies supporting them in order to provide some criteria for encouraging research results that increase policy effectiveness.

Crop insurance Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The present technical brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it summarizes some of FAO’s experience working with crop insurance during the past years. It targets development practitioners that are not specialized in the subject have a growing interest in it.

Auteur FAO
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 3 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance Risk Assessment
Ressources connexes
Policy Brief on Agricultural Finance in Africa Brief 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The policy brief builds upon the analysis of policy issues and the formulation of recommendations emanating from the Making Finance Work for Africa (MFW4A) Zipping Finance and Farming in Africa Conference held in Kampala, Uganda in June 2011. The document provides a set of policy recommendations designed to help promote the expansion of agricultural finance in Africa. The brief focuses on specific agricultural finance policy measures that can make the biggest difference in expanding access to financial services for producers, agribusinesses and other agricultural value chain participants within the African context.

Catalyzing smallholder agricultural finance Paper 2012 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The study makes an attempt to identify several approaches or growth pathways for deploying investments to address smallholder finance. Based on a global review of cases, the report make recommendations on how donors, impact investors, multinational buyers, and commercial and social lenders can collaborate in different contexts to enable the provision of financial services to smallholders.

study  -  English (en)

Study of African and International Innovations and Best Practices in Increasing Access to Rural and Agricultural Finance Study Guide 2012 English (en)

view page
Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This study documents African and international innovations and best practices at the policy, industry, supplier and client level to improve access to agricultural and rural financial services in southern African countries. The overall objective of this study is to address and provide comprehensive answers to the questions as: What categories of public and private sector intervention are needed at the macro, meso, micro and client levels in order to address the rural and agricultural finance challenges in the region? What are the best African and international current practices in respect of each of these categories of intervention? What are the circumstances and main drivers that have enabled these practices to develop and bear fruit? What is needed to enable such practices to be applied with success in the six study countries?

Study of African and International Innovations and Best Practices  -  English (en)

Auteur Robert Stone, Jason Agar, Abigail Carpio, Mateo Cabello and Janet Hayes
Éditeur Oxford Policy Management
Nombre de pages 196 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Rural Finance, Innovation
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2011 Report 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The Agricultural Finance Yearbook, of which this is the fifth edition, reviews developments pertaining to the modernization of the agricultural sector in Uganda, particularly those which have relevance for investment in, and the financing of, agriculture and agricultural marketing. The modernization of agriculture is a key development priority for Uganda but this will not be possible without improving the provision of a wide range of financial services to farmers, agro processors and traders.

One of the most striking features of agricultural finance in 2011 was the very rapid growth of loans and advances to agriculture by supervised financial institutions (banks, credit institutions and deposit taking microfinance institutions). New advances to agriculture grew by 60 percent in 2011, albeit from a relatively small base. Much of this increase was a result of a substantial expansion in post –harvest lending by commercial banks, with loans secured by warehouse receipts, which is testament to the fact that the efforts made in recent years to reform policy and legislation related to warehouse receipts and to undertake capacity building in this area have begun to bear fruit.

Food prices in Uganda were driven up sharply in 2011 by a combination of domestic and regional supply shocks and higher global food prices. The Yearbook analyses the recent food price shocks in Uganda and discusses policy measures to improve food security. Higher global food prices are likely to be a feature of the global economy over the long term, which will provide Uganda with an opportunity to exploit its comparative advantage in agriculture and boost agricultural exports.

The Yearbook explores in detail various issues pertaining to investment in value chains in agriculture, including the role of market information and the need to encourage greater utilisation of high quality seeds, fertiliser and other modern inputs. The Yearbook also discusses some important innovations pertaining to agricultural finance, including micro-factoring in Kenya and new approaches to the challenge of training agricultural bankers.

We recommend the Yearbook to everyone interested in agricultural finance and the modernization of agriculture in Uganda.

Auteur Bank of Uganda and the Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture Secretariat, GIZ
Éditeur Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammearbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Uganda, Kampala
Nombre de pages 184 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Policies, Policy Making
Ressources connexes
Financing smallholder agricultural term investments Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This technical brief  is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it summarizes some of the key findings from a major FAO study conducted in collaboration  with the World Bank that analyzes some of the inter-institutional arrangements used by private actors to access medium to long-term finance for agricultural investments.

An analytical framework for regulation and supervision of agricultural finance Technical Note 2012

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This brief is a part of "Technical briefs on rural and agricultural finance" and it summarizes findings from several studies conducted by FAO during the development of its agricultural finance revisited series, concerning the role of government supervision in the development of agricultural financial markets.

Auteur FAO
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Rome, Italy
Nombre de pages 3 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Financial Regulations, Agribusiness Finance
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Finance – Trends, Issues and Challenges Paper 2011

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This GIZ paper provides an overview of the current state of rural finance, summarising recent advances and highlighting the remaining gaps and challenges. It is targeted at a broader audience of policy-makers, experts and practitioners in the fields of rural and agricultural development, financial sector development and microfinance who want a quick overview of the subject.

Chapter 1 defines core concepts and highlights the specific issues and challenges of financial services provision in rural areas. This is followed by a brief overview of the changing approaches to rural finance over the past few decades and a snapshot of the current status and recent trends in different regions.

Chapter 2 discusses the key areas and hotspots of rural finance development, which have been in the spotlight over the last decade and highlights the main issues, achievements and challenges ahead. These areas are grouped into three broader categories: Advances in financial products and services development (1), advances in developing institutions (2) and delivery mechanisms (3) to expand sustainable rural outreach.

Chapter 3 highlights priorities for further advancing the rural and agricultural finance agenda.

Rural and Agricultural Finance: Taking Stock of Five Years of Innovations Report 2011

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This paper researches and categorizes the principal challenges facing the agricultural and rural sectors, and takes stock of the financial services initiatives around the world since 2006 that form part of the “innovations frontiers” in addressing these challenges. The paper first defines a model for agricultural and rural finance, recognizing the interactions between agricultural value chains, non-farm enterprises and households. It frames the discussion from the perspective of demand for finance by defining the key problems in the value chain or household. The paper then categorizes financial innovations that show promise in addressing these problems as well as those related to the policy environment, that affect the performance of the agricultural sectors and the well-being of rural households.

Subsidies as an Instrument in Agriculture Finance: A Review Paper 2011

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This paper presents a literature review of issues related to recent subsidies and investments in the financial sector that have been designed to address the immediate effects of the crises and to develop the financial institutions necessary to modernize agriculture. The literature consulted reflects a combination of academic sources and reports from the agencies and organizations involved in supplying financial services in developing countries. Against this background, this paper presents a review of subsidies as an instrument of agricultural development finance. This review is one of the major recent initiatives of the CABFIN partnership. This review also clearly defines the different types of subsidies currently used in agricultural development and proposes “smart”—that is, appropriate—use of subsidies to support viable agricultural development.

The emphasis here is largely on agricultural credit, with less attention given to other financial services. This paper focuses on credit primarily for small farmers rather than for large farmers and agribusinesses, which normally have better access to commercial credit sources. It does not delve into the rapidly expanding literature on agricultural value chain finance, which offers a viable alternative for reducing risk and costs in some types of agricultural finance while increasing access to funding for some smallholders who may otherwise not be reached unless there are subsidies or directives for financing them.

The paper is intended for decision makers in developing countries as well as staff in international agencies, financial institutions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and other organizations who make decisions about programs and policies affecting financial services, especially credit, for poor farm and nonfarm households in rural areas. It is expected to serve as an input into the preparation of an official policy statement of the CABFIN donor consortium on the role and status of subsidies in agricultural finance worldwide.

Auteur Meyer, R.
Éditeur The World Bank
Nombre de pages 72 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Ressources connexes
Zipping Finance and Farming in Africa - conference report Report 2011

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

In June 2011, more than 300 participants gathered in Kampala to zip Finance and Farming in Africa. The main outcome of the conference is the Kampala Principles, 11 policy guidelines suggesting the actions most urgently required to foster the effective provision of financial services to the agricultural sector in Africa in the context of the Comprehensive AfricaAgriculture Development Program (CAADP). They also have the power to reach beyondthe African context and to represent the African voice within the international discussion on agricultural finance.

This report is intended to provide an insight into the lively discussions of the conference, the business cases presented, and the elaboration on the Kampala Principles.

Auteur Michael Rothe, Judith Frickenstein and Claudia Huber
Éditeur GIZ
Nombre de pages 21 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2010 - Marrying Finance and Farming Book 2011 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The Agricultural Finance Yearbook for 2010 seeks to reflect the main issues, actions, successes and failures experienced in Uganda during the year, in the overall area of financial sector support to agriculture. It is increasingly recognized, in Uganda, in Africa as a whole, and in the international community, that adequate access to financial services is vital for those who build productivity and earn their livelihoods in agricultural commodity value chains.

The year 2010 has been notable in that lending to the agricultural sector by Tiers 1, 2 and 3 financial institutions has re-bounded to approach the levels recorded in 2007 and 2008. In part this can be attributed to more favourable agricultural seasons from a climate viewpoint, but it may also reflect some success on the policy front – for example the Government’s Agricultural Credit Facility, as described in Article 1.4. Another reason for the increase in lending to agriculture is due to a number of banks recognising business opportunities in the sector and developing products and approaches accordingly. Improved flow of information on successful investments, as conveyed in knowledge products such as the Yearbook series, are an important part of this process. It is also hoped that banks that have moved in this direction will enhance their involvement in the sector, driven by the opportunities presented.

Turning to Tier 4 institutions, a few SACCOs have recorded notable successes over the years, however, many have faced significant problems. The Yearbooks for 2008 and 2009 included articles that described some successes and also some sound working linkages between SACCOs and commercial banks. The 2010 Yearbook, and particularly Articles 5.1 and 5.2, focuses very specifically on some of the remedial actions needed for those SACCOs that are experiencing problems. The overall importance of the SACCO sector is recognised, as it is clear that this type of member-owned financial institution, when properly managed and regulated, can offer effective and valuable services to its members, who are often living and working far from the branch network of commercial banks.

The Yearbook series, including this edition, is commended to all concerned to see improved linkagesbetween the financial and the agricultural sectors in Uganda.

agricultural finance yearbook 2010  -  English (en)

Auteur Bank of Uganda and the Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture Secretariat, GIZ
Éditeur Bank of Uganda and the Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture Secretariat, GIZ
Nombre de pages 189 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Uganda
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Commercial Farming
Ressources connexes
Financing Agricultural Value Chains in Africa Report 2011

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The report represents the synthesis of a series of studies into agricultural finance in Africa. The aim was to examine access to finance for agriculture in Africa, with a view to provide insight into the existing institutional environment and with the aim to identify strategies and tactics which would create an enabling environment for access to finance in commercially oriented agricultural value chains.

Auteur Mike Coates, Richard Kitchen, Geoffrey Kebbell, Catherine Vignon, Claude Guillemain and Robin Hofmeister
Éditeur GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Gesellschaft (GIZ) GmbH
Eschborn
Nombre de pages 87 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Value Chain Finance, Agricultural Value Chains
Ressources connexes
Scaling-Up Access to Finance for Agricultural SMEs Report 2011

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The development of SME Finance in the agricultural sector was also identified as an important issue to bring forward food security and to reach the Millennium Development Goals. IFC conducted analytical work with the objective of identifying appropriate approaches to calculate or reduce the main risks and costs that inhibit access to financial services in the agricultural sector in developing countries. A stocktaking exercise was conducted on approximately 60 case studies and an outreach process was initiated, especially with African partner countries, supported by the Partnership “Making Finance Work for Africa”. This effort led to a report presenting several guidelines for policy and regulatory frameworks conducive to agricultural finance.

Cracking the Nut 2011: Overcoming Obstacles to Rural and Agricultural Finance Paper 2011

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The publication summarizes the key lessons learned from the knowledge generated at the conference. The publication serves to reinvigorate the passion and inspiration participants got from the conference to continue cracking the remaining tough nuts of rural and agricultural finance.

The Ugandan Agricultural Yearbook Book 2010

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The Ugandan Yearbook on Agricultural Finance for 2009 has just been published. This knowledge product is the third in a series born of a collaborative effort between the Bank of Uganda, the Ministry of Agriculture's Programme for the Modernization of Agriculture and the GTZ Financial System Development Programme (FSD). The purpose of the Yearbook series is to highlight promising new initiatives used to assist in the financing of investment in agricultural value chains. As such it covers the activities of commercial banks, credit institutions, MDIs and SACCOs/MFIs.

Apart from positive examples, the Yearbook also serves to warn of problems that may be faced by investing farmers, processors and marketers of agricultural produce. Thus the 2009 Yearbook warns of products and machines that are offered on the Ugandan market, but which are either fake, or sub-standard. These range from agro-chemicals and veterinary drugs, all the way through in terms of value to four wheel tractors.

Above all, the Yearbook serves to both encourage financial institutions to support their clients' agricultural investments, and shows how best this can be done.

Auteur Bank of Uganda, GTZ, PMA
Éditeur Bank of Uganda
Uganda
Nombre de pages 156 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa
Uganda
Mots-clés Financial Institutions
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Value Chain Finance: Tools and Lessons Book 2010 English (en) French (fr)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This volume provides a global review of experiences and learning on the broad subject of value chain finance for agriculture in developing countries. Value chains in agriculture comprise a set of actors who conduct a linked sequence of value-adding activities involved in bringing a product from its raw material stage to the final consumer. Value chain finance, as described in this volume, refers to the financial flows to those actors from both within the value chain and financial flows to those actors from the outside as a result of their being linked within a value chain.

The purpose of this book is to provide an understanding of the emerging field of agricultural value chain finance. Key questions include:

• What is value chain finance, how is it applied and what can it offer to strengthen agricultural development?

• How can financial systems, governments and services be prepared for the demands of financing modern agri-food chains?

• How does agricultural value chain financing affect inclusion, especially for small producers and what can be done to make these systems more inclusive?

• What can governmental and non-governmental (NGO) agencies do to support increased and more effective agricultural financing through value chains?

Document  -  English (en)

Document  -  French (fr)

Auteur Calvin Miller; Linda Jones
Éditeur FAO and Practical Action
Nombre de pages 195 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Ressources connexes
Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services in the Developing World Report 2010

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The Stocktaking Report aims to provide the G-20 Leaders with a summarized but comprehensive frame- work by which to understand the SME finance gap and its challenges. The first part of the report is con- ceptual and primarily consists of a review of the literature on SME Finance in the developing world; the second part of the report discusses the analysis of 164 cases of SME Finance interventions compiled through a collective effort involving G-20 member countries, non-member countries, development finance institutions, and private sector players. Finally, the report highlights key recommendations that are proposed to the G-20 Leaders in order to achieve significant and sustainable scale-up of SME access to financial services across the developing world.

Auteur International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Éditeur International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Nombre de pages 144 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Access To Finance, Small And Medium Enterprises (Smes), Economic Development
Ressources connexes
Sobre el crédito a los agricultores de pequeña escala y la necesidad de una base autónoma de recursos. Article 2010

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

El documento analiza e identifica al crédito como elemento clave en la economía de los pequeños agricultores quienes enfrentan limitaciones para poder financiar los principales insumos  que requieren para la producción.  Ante tal situación  identifica el crédito como la solución a pesar de los riesgos que la volatilidad de mercados el clima y el crédito en sí mismo implican.

Auteur Jan Douwe Van der Ploeg
Éditeur LEISA Revista de Agroecología
Nombre de pages 4
Langue principale Spanish (es)
Région / Pays Global, Americas, South America
Peru
Mots-clés crédito agrícola, pequeños agricultores
Ressources connexes
Role of Institutional Credit on Agricultural Production: A Time Series Analysis of Pakistan Paper 2010 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

In our predominant and cash-strapped agrarian sector, adequate credit provision is a definite buttress to implant technological advancements, achieve technical efficiency and hire efficient inputs to uplift agriculture output/income collectively and eradicate poverty eventually. In the midst of beleaguered informal credit sector and recent spurt in banking services in last decade diverted the attention to envisage the formal sector’s optimum potential. In this backdrop, this study is going to explore the role of institutional credit in agricultural production using the time series data for the period of 1972 to 2008. Cobb-Douglas production function is estimated using OLS and all the variables are transformed to per cultivated hectare. Results show that agricultural credit, availability of water, cropping intensity and agricultural labor force are positively significantly related to agricultural production.

Role of Institutional Credit on Agricultural Production  -  English (en)

Auteur Sial, M.H.; Awan, M. S.; Waqas, M.
Éditeur Department of Economics, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
Nombre de pages 9 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Asia, South-eastern Asia
Pakistan
Mots-clés Production, Agricultural Credit, Credit Institutions
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2009 - Uganda Book 2010 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2009 is the third in a series born from a collaborative effort between the Bank of Uganda, the Ministry of Agriculture's Programme for the Modernization of Agriculture and the GTZ Financial System Development Programme (FSD). The purpose of the Yearbook series is to highlight promising new initiatives used to assist in the financing of investment in agricultural value chains. As such it covers the activities of commercial banks, credit institutions, MDIs and SACCOs/MFIs.

Apart from positive examples, the Yearbook also serves to warn of problems that may be faced by investing farmers, processors and marketers of agricultural produce. Thus the 2009 Yearbook warns of products and machines that are offered on the Ugandan market, but which are either fake, or sub-standard. These range from agro-chemicals and veterinary drugs, all the way through in terms of value to four wheel tractors.

Above all, the Yearbook serves to both encourage financial institutions to support their clients' agricultural investments, and shows how best this can be done.

Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2009  -  English (en)

Auteur Bank of Uganda, GTZ, PMA
Éditeur Bank of Uganda
Nombre de pages 156 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa
Uganda
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Value Chain Finance, Investment
Ressources connexes
Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2008 Report 2009

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

“Less finance, but a greater variety of products” sums up 2008 as far as financial services for the agricultural sector are concerned. This publication, the Yearbook on Agricultural Finance for 2008, seeks to reflect the main issues, actions, successes and failures experienced in Uganda during the year, in the overall area of financial sector support to agriculture – one of the areas with so much to contribute to achieving the goals of the National Development Plan.

The past year, 2008, has not been an easy one for those working in agricultural value chains, and seeking financial services - not only loans for working capital but more especially longer term finance for investment purposes. Data from the Bank of Uganda, presented in the chapter entitled ‘Trends in Agricultural Finance’, suggest that the overall volume of lending to the agricultural sector contracted slightly compared with the previous year. However, to some extent this was compensated by a substantial increase in the volume of leasing contracts for agricultural machinery.

Indeed, leases are one of the newer financial products now making their mark on agricultural value chains. The article in the Yearbook, ‘Will Leasing Boost Agricultural Finance?’ explores the advantages of this financial product, but also highlights urgent actions needed on the part of government to improve the effectiveness of leasing in boosting investment in farm production and in downstream processing.

Another notable new product is term finance for draught oxen purchase and for the acquisition of ox-drawn implements. The experience of one commercial bank that is a pioneer in this area of lending is covered in the article, ‘New Term Lending Products: Animal Traction Investment”.

Several articles cover the growth of structured finance products, where the existence of linkages other than finance facilitates the lending/borrowing process. Examples range from small-scale sugar and tea growers to a large cotton ginner/exporter. A related example deals with the largely negative experience of a seeds company using a novel financing model.

Turning now from products and mechanisms to institutions, the dilemma as to how best to ensure servicing rural areas with efficient and honest financial services for the benefit of farmers has yet to be solved. The record here is indeed patchy. One article shows how a successful SACCO has focused on agricultural lending; another deals with harnessing technology as a means of addressing structural weaknesses and operational inefficiencies in SACCOs. Despite a few bright spots, the overall task ahead to strengthen SACCOs is enormous – as suggested in the article on training SACCO managers, staff and directors. Again on the institutional side, two of the early articles in the Yearbook take a critical look at the effectiveness of fiscal incentives designed to encourage commercial banks to lend to individuals and companies in agricultural value chains. The result has not been encouraging, but the articles point out how policy changes could be developed in a more fruitful manner – by involving intended beneficiaries in the formulation process.

The need for greater consultation before policies are introduced is perhaps the over-riding lesson from 2008. It is hoped that the changes being introduced by government in 2009 will encourage rather than stifle the very necessary improvements in this area.

Finally the Yearbook includes articles from the Bank of Uganda on the ongoing study geared to calculating Domestic Resource Costs of a wide variety of commodities, and also from the World Food Programme on experiences with the domestic sourcing of foods such as maize.

Auteur Agricultural Finance Yearbook 2008
Éditeur Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammearbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Uganda, Kampala
Nombre de pages 50 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa
Uganda
Mots-clés Agricultural Finance, Financial Policy
Ressources connexes
Land grab or development opportunity? Agricultural investment and international land deals in Africa Report 2009

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This report is the outcome of a collaboration between IIED, FAO and IFAD. The report discusses key trends and drivers in land acquisitions, the contractual arrangements underpinning them and the way these are negotiated, as well as the early impacts on land access for rural people in recipient countries. The report looks at large-scale land acquisitions, broadly defined as acquisitions (whether purchases, leases or other) of land areas over 1,000 ha. While international land deals are emerging as a global phenomenon, this report focuses on sub-Saharan Africa.

The report draws on a literature review; on qualitative interviews with key informants internationally; on national inventories of approved and proposed land acquisitions since 2004 in five African countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mali and Sudan), as well as qualitative case studies in Mozambique and Tanzania; and on legal analysis of applicable law and of a small sample of land deals.

Auteur Cotula, L.; Vermeulen, S.; Leonard, R.; Keeley, J.
Nombre de pages 130 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Africa, Eastern and Central Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa
Mots-clés Land Investment
Ressources connexes
Los Sistemas de Información agrarios y rurales en el Perú: Balance general y 10 estudios de caso Case Study 2009 Spanish (es)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Este documento presenta el resultado del Diagnóstico de los Sistemas de Información Local (SIL) en el Perú encargado por PROSAAMER a CEPES. Esta investigación buscó llegar a recomendaciones que permitan a PROSAAMER fortalecer a los SIL existentes y promover la creación de nuevos SIL. En general, se recomiendan acciones ligadas a reforzar los SIL con la participación de múltiples actores, mejorar el conocimiento del público objetivo, contribuir con las mejoras de los SIL en términos tecnológicos y de proceso, desarrollar capacidades del personal de los SIL, sistematizar lo aprendido y promover la cooperación. A continuación encontrarán la introducción en la que se desarrolla primero una caracterización del espacio rural y el desarrollo rural; luego se define el concepto de sostenibilidad y los aspectos más importantes de éste: social, organizativo, político o legal, tecnológico y financiero; a continuación se toca el tema de información y comunicación para el desarrollo donde se trata sobre la información y su rol como herramienta para el desarrollo, el uso de información por agricultores, los sistemas tradicionales de comunicación, los medios de difusión más usados en los espacios rurales; finalmente, exponemos un panorama general sobre los SIL en el Perú, a partir del diagnóstico inicial que permitió identificar treinta sistemas de información a nivel nacional (28 en funcionamiento), a los que se describe en aspectos como: temas o aéreas temáticas, distribución según zonas geográficas, tipo de actores que promueve el sistema, tipos de actores involucrados en la operatividad del SIL y los medios de difusión usados. Seguidamente, se describe la metodología que utilizada para esta investigación. La primera parte fue una investigación de escritorio con la revisión bibliográfica y recojo de información inicial, así como de diseño de las herramientas a utilizar para el levantamiento de información de campo. Con la información recogida en el diagnóstico inicial se seleccionó diez casos a ser visitados buscando que su variedad fuera representativa del total de sistemas identificados; para ello se consideraron criterios como tipo de actores que promueven los SIL, amplitud y ubicación del ámbito servido por los SIL, tipo de contenido de información tratado por cada SIL, y variedad de medios utilizados para hacer llegar información a sus usuarios. Los casos seleccionados fueron:

  • Sistema de Información para la integración y competitividad del sector lácteo INFOLACTEA
  • Sistema de Información Rural de Arequipa SIRA
  • Sistema de Información de mercados Mi Chacra
  • Sistema de Información Cadena Cuy
  • Sistema de Información Forestal de la Amazonía Peruana
  • Sistema de Información Red Marañón
  • Sistema de Información de Junta Nacional del Café
  • SIA- Junta de Usuarios Distrito de Riego del Valle de Huaral
  • Sistema de Información Santa Catalina
  • Sistema de Información PROVID
Los Sistemas de Información agrarios y rurales en el Perú  -  Spanish (es)

Auteur Juan Fernando Bossio, Carolina Garay, Vania Jordán y Gabriela Perona.
Éditeur CEPES
Nombre de pages 167 pp.
Langue principale Spanish (es)
Région / Pays Global, Americas, South America
Peru
Mots-clés Information Management Systems (Mis)
Ressources connexes
Handbook on Best Practices in Agri/Rural Finance Book 2009

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This handbook, compiled by the State Bank of Pakistan, provides a global overview of the policies and strategies of successful institutions in the field of agri/rural finance and highlights their key achievements in terms of vast outreach, high rate of recovery, sustainability as well as profitability, and most importantly the increasing level of confidence of their clients in those institutions which is depicted in their vertical & horizontal expansion. It then discusses how these good practices can be applied in the context of Pakistan.

Auteur Agricultural Credit Department, State Bank of Pakistan
Éditeur State Bank of Pakistan
Nombre de pages 37 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Asia, Southern Asia
Pakistan
Mots-clés Rural Finance, Agricultural Finance, Value Chain Finance, Agricultural Credit
Ressources connexes
The Missing Middle in Agricultural Finance Paper 2009

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Private-sector finance has made a start in filling this long-established gap, widened over the last decade as public-sector financing frameworks for small-scale agriculture have been withdrawn. However, the flow of capital to agricultural SMEs needs to be scaled up. This paper looks at the barriers to doing so.

This paper seeks to show that while the reason for the missing middle is fairly straightforward, eliminating it requires a multi-track approach to match the complex pattern of demand, supply, and infrastructure features.

Key findings:

  • Too few smallholder farmers are aggregated in producer organisations or other SMEs capable of partnering with lenders or investors.
  • Improvements, fairly straightforward, in the legal and administrative infrastructure that supports the finance sector can reduce transaction costs, for example by making collateral easier to use and credit history on borrowers more available.
  • Collateral substitutes such as factoring and leasing can be legally enabled and encouraged.
  • Some risks can be shared or transferred through guarantee and insurance mechanisms.
  • Most rural finance providers need a degree of institutional reform if they are to contribute substantially to solving the problem of the missing middle.
  • Returns on investment in agricultural SMEs can be increased through the public-sector taking responsibility for improving the physical infrastructure in rural areas and supporting farmer education and locally specific R&D.
  • Non-profit actors: donors and NGOs and others, can make a major contribution by work alongside financial institutions to remove frictions in the market for small-scale agricultural capital.
Managing Risk in Farming Study Guide 2008

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Farmers in developing countries are frequently exposed to the uncertainties of weather, prices and disease. Many farmers live on the edge of extreme uncertainty, sometimes falling just below, and sometimes rising just above the threshold of survival. Farmers do not know whether rainfall will be good or bad over a season; they do not know the prices they will receive for produce sold; and they do not know whether their crops will be infected by disease. These risks are not under the control of farmers but some farmers have developed ways of coping and managing them.

Auteur David Kahan
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Nombre de pages 120 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Risk Management, Farm Management
Ressources connexes
Managing risks and designing products for agricultural microfinance Paper 2008

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The purpose of the paper is to provide practitioners, policy makers and donors with a thorough overview of agricultural microfinance. It is hoped that they can use this information to expand the access of farming-dependent households to sustainable financial services on a massive scale.

The analysis in this paper was conducted without bias towards any specific institutional type or approach because there is enormous potential for cross-learning among traditional agricultural finance, agribusiness credit and microfinance. Although the paper focuses on lending, it also recognizes and explores the importance of deposit, insurance and money transfer services for both farming households and financial institutions. This paper was produced as a desk review, supplemented by correspondence with the institutions in the case studies, visits to selected institutions and discussions with knowledgeable third parties.14 The data on rural finance programmes reported here, particularly repayment rates and financial sustainability levels, come from a variety of sources, including reports by agricultural lenders.

Reforma agraria y desarrollo rural en la región andina Book 2007

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole
Auteur Fernando Eguren
Langue principale Spanish (es)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Policy Reform
Ressources connexes
Emerging Lessons in Agricultural Microfinance Case Study 2006 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This publication is the result of a research conducted by CGAP with funding from IFAD on emerging lessons in agricultural microfinance. Based on desk reviews, consultant site visits and stakeholder consultation, CGAP identified a shortlist of institutions actively engaged in agricultural finance that showed the potential to achieve scale and sustainability. Several case studies were selected from this shortlist and are presented in the present publication.

These case studies present promising approaches to the sustainable provision of financial services to poor rural households reliant on agriculture. The five institutions or projects highlighted in the studies are:

  1. Confianza, Peru;
  2. Bai Tushum Financial Foundation (Bai Tushum), Kyrgyzstan;
  3. Caja Los Andes (CLA), Bolivia;
  4. Equity Bank, Limited (Equity), Kenya; and
  5. Cooperative League of the USA (CLUSA), Mozambique.

CGAP selected these cases on the basis of the following criteria:

  • the importance of agricultural lending to the overall portfolio and mission of the microfinance provider;
  • the medium-term sustainability of the agricultural lending activities (and institutional ability to survive difficult years caused by weather, price movements, or government policies);
  • potential for replication or scale;
  • ability to serve as an illustration of a particular institutional or methodological approach to agricultural microfinance; and
  • geographic distribution.
selected case studies  -  English (en)

Financiación de la comercialización agrícola en América Latina Paper 2006

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

El presente documento describe cómo los comerciantes de cereales (sobre todo arroz) y productos hortofrutícolas financian sus actividades. Se basa en estudios de caso llevados a cabo en Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica, Ecuador y Perú. El documento estudia tres temas interrelacionados: cuáles son las fuentes de financiamiento del comercio agrícola en América Latina, qué vínculos financieros existen en las agrocadenas de comercialización, y cómo las instituciones financieras pueden satisfacer mejor la demanda de comerciantes y procesadores de productos agrícolas.

La conclusión principal es que la falta de financiamiento no obstaculiza el normal desarrollo del comercio agrícola en la región, en parte porque los vínculos financieros existentes en las cadenas de comercialización llenan este vacío, al menos parcialmente. Sin embargo, la falta de acceso a fuentes formales de capital de trabajo y sobre todo de capital para inversiones, dificulta la expansión y modernización de la actividad comercial.

El documento estudia la brecha existente entre lo que demandan los comerciantes agrícolas y lo que realmente ofrecen las instituciones bancarias, y da algunas sugerencias sobre cómo reducir dicha brecha mediante el desarrollo de productos de crédito y productos financieros en general, servicios y procedimientos más adecuados.

El estudio analiza también los impactos sobre el financiamiento de los comerciantes agrícolas de la creciente informalización de algunos sistemas de comercialización agrícola y de las crisis económicas que han afectado recientemente América Latina. Por último, el documento examina el papel del Estado en la promoción del financiamiento del comercio agrícola y explora el posible financiamiento de los agricultores a través del sistema comercial.

Auteur E. Galvez
Éditeur Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Nombre de pages 76 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global, Americas, Central America, Caribbean, South America
Mots-clés Commercial Farming, Agro-Industries
Ressources connexes
Role of Government Brief 2006

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This brief notes in its introduction that rural areas and the agricultural sector in developing countries have often been underserved by conventional financial institutions due to the higher transaction costs of these operations and the higher real and perceived risk associated with agricultural lending. In seeking to promote rural development, and considering the relative importance of agriculture in many of these economies, many governments have struggled to expand rural and agricultural finance. In the 1970s and 1980s, governments saw it as their role to step in and provide credit, either through state agricultural banks or through directed credit programs facilitated by commercial financial institutions. While these programs may have had an immediate effect on the growth of targeted agricultural sub-sectors, loans available under these programs typically were costly to administer and included subsidized interest rates. Further, for political or social reasons governments often would treat the loans as grants, resulting in a culture of non-payment.

With these failures as backdrop, the brief highlights that governments often face the fundamental problem: agriculture and rural areas are underserved in terms of credit and other financial services. How can governments expand rural and agricultural finance, without repeating the mistakes of the past? Instead of being a direct provider, governments can be far more effective by establishing and enabling environment for the private sector to supply financial services to rural and agricultural sectors.

This brief aims to provide guidelines for government intervention.

Auteur Miller, M
Éditeur USAID
Nombre de pages 8 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Government Policy, Government Intervention, Private Sector
Ressources connexes
Innovations in Rural and Agricultural Finance in Moldova Report 2006

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This case study analyzes the innovations and performance of bank and non-bank financial institutions sustainably expanding access to demand-driven rural and agricultural financial (RAF) services in Moldova during the last five years (December 1999–September 2004).

The main objectives of this case study are to explore how RAF programs in Moldova have overcome the challenges of improving access to financial services for rural communities and the agricultural sector and to extract lessons applicable to other less-developed countries.

The case assesses retailing of rural financial services (non-farm and agricultural) by Moldova Agroindbank (Agroindbank), Savings and Credit Associations (SCAs), the Rural Finance Corporation (RFC) and wholesaling of funds by Agroindbank and RFC to the SCAs. The case also considers improvements in the operating environment that have facilitated expansion of RAF services. The paper concludes with highlights of key lessons learned and an evaluation of the transferability of the innovations and results achieved.

Microcredit and Agriculture: How to Make it Work Paper 2006

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This paper discusses the challenges to ad factors affecting the success of institutions providing financial services for agricultural activities. The World Bank definition of rural finance is adopted here – the provision of a range of financial services such as savings, credit, payments and insurance to rural individuals, households, and enterprises, both farm and on-farm, on a sustainable basis. It includes financing for agriculture and agro processing.

Agricultural finance is defined as a subset of rural finance dedicated to financing agricultural related activities such as input supply, production, distribution, wholesale, processing and marketing. And the term microfinance is considered the provision of financial services for poor and low income people and covers the lower ends of both rural and agriculture finance.

Section 1 of this document provides readers with an overview of recent research in the area of rural and agriculture finance, and sets out the commonly held opinions. The following section then provides a discussion of the main challenges in the provision of financial services in rural areas – the paper amalgamates different lists from various sources that may constrain both supply and demand.

Section 3 then points to what is working. It notes, of course, that there is not one clear model or set of guidelines that an institution can follow to ensure absolute success. However, the similarities amongst institutions that have achieved “success” in the provision of rural financial services are discussed, as well as some characteristics that can contribute to well performing portfolios within agricultural finance providers. The final section discusses what is being learnt – including a summary of the lessons from urban microcredit that can be applied to rural areas.

Auteur Andrews, M, Sr. Microfinance Consultant, MEDA
Éditeur Mennonite Economic Development Associates, Canada
Nombre de pages 34 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Microfinance, Rural Finance
Ressources connexes
Rural and Agricultural Finance Institutional Infrastructure Paper 2006

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This paper points to the needs of vibrant rural financial markets for a supportive legal and regulatory framework as well as the necessary institutions to bring that framework to life. For example, it notes that agricultural enterprises do not benefit from secured lending laws if the necessary moveable or immovable property registries do not exist, or operate ineffectively. It is the institutional infrastructure, together with the legal and regulatory framework, that enables the growth of a variety of viable financial institutions that are client oriented, mobilize deposits effectively and provide access to loans to a full range of farmers, agribusinesses, and other rural clients.

The rural and agricultural finance institutional infrastructure implements and enforces the legal and regulatory framework, and provides support and other services to the agricultural and financial sector. These institutions include both public and private institutions. Some work directly with the financial sector to support their operations and services to rural and agricultural clients. Other institutions provide services directly to rural enterprises, improving their access to finance and their bankability.

The purpose of this RAFI note is to provide an introduction to the types of institutions that comprise the supportive infrastructure for rural and agricultural finance, identification of how these institutions address various constraints to rural and agricultural finance, and the lessons learned from developing these institutions and their operations.

Different aspects of rural and agricultural infrastructure are discussed, which fall under three main headings:

  • Institutions that facilitate secured lending
  • Institutions that improve information
  • Institutions that reduce risk
Auteur Snider, P
Éditeur USAID
Nombre de pages 6 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Infrastructure, Financial Markets, Information, Lending, Agricultural Risk
Ressources connexes
Micro-finance and farm finance – is there any connection? Note de la rédaction 2005

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Malcolm Harper notes that “old paradigm” rural credit, with subsidised interest rates, mainly to individual men, for medium and long terms, with single balloon repayments and no link to savings, has been increasingly replaced by “new paradigm” micro-finance; short term, initially in small sums, sustainable cost-covering interest rates, with frequent regular repayments, mainly to women in groups, with strict savings requirements and relatively high interest rates. He wonders, however, if micro-finance a suitable way of financing seasonal crop loans, or longer term farm investments such as tube wells or terracing?

There seems to be a mismatch between micro-finance and on-farm investments, not least in respect of interest rates. The cost of funds, that is the interest rate, must be far enough below the expected return from the investment to cover the risk of loss and to allow the owner a reasonable surplus. While many microenterprises show rates of return on capital in the range of 800%, farm enterprises generally average less than 100%. Can farmers afford microfinance?

Farm credit and microfinance - is there a critical mismatch? Article 2005

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

"New paradigm" micro-finance has largely replaced old style rural finance, which was mainly subsidised low-cost farm credit. The "old paradigm" rural development finance institutions have in some cases disappeared, and in others they have been converted into what are effectively specialist micro-finance institutions (MFI). This article asks if new paradigm micro-finance effectively address the needs of farmers.

The author constructs an interesting table which compares the features of five possible uses of credit in a rural household - health needs, petty trade, milking cows, crop loans and minor irrigation - with the characteristics of typical microfinance loan products. He concludes that there is an increasing mismatch in suitability as one moves from health needs and petty trade to crop loans and irrigation. He then goes on to examine one particular feature in more detail - the mismatch of microfinance interest rates with on-farm rates of return.

Professor Harper believes that MFIs should consider their clients' rates of return as well as their own costs when setting interest rates. He argues that if interest rates are higher than the clients' returns, the long-term impact will be to impoverish them and not to enrich them. Studies of many microenterprises have established that their rates of return can be very high. One study of 215 microenterprises produced an average annual return of 847% (see online lesson number 2 in the RFLC for an explanation of rates of return). However, examination of limited data about returns for farm investments showed the highest figure was 160% and most were below 100%.

To conclude the article the author asks if the low or negative margin between the cost of micro loans and returns from farm investments matters. He cites arguments for and against the issue being a problem and explores some trends which may help to render microfinance products more suitable for farmers, notably the increasing competition amongst MFIs and from commercial banks which will help to drive interest rates down. Microfinance staff seem largely unaware of the potential unsuitability of their products for farming and the author recommends that those who advise, finance and train MFIs should encourage their staff to investigate the situation and address the problem if there is one.

Auteur Harper, M.
Éditeur ITDG Publishing
Nombre de pages 11 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Microfinance Lending, Commercial Farming, Interest Rate
Ressources connexes
Financing Commodity-Based Trade and Development: Innovative Agriculture Financing Mechanisms Paper 2004 English (en)

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

In many developing countries and countries in transition, access to credit is severely constrained, as most banks are willing to lend only against certain fixed assets and at terms and conditions that are often unfavourable to operators in the commodity sector. This situation is a serious impediment to development, and, since most of the world’s poor are commodity producers, it hampers worldwide efforts to reduce poverty. Recently there has been a quiet revolution in agricultural lending, similar to what happened with micro-finance in the 1990s.

Most of the new methods are geared towards borrowers, farmers or farmers’ associations, processors or traders as parts of the commodity supply chain. Credits are based on the performance of the borrower in the chain, rather than just on the borrower’s credit risk. Consequently the risk for the financiers is much lower, so that agricultural lending can become a useful activity. This paper reviews innovative delivery models for agricultural finance, suggests ways forward to further develop such models, and discusses how to mainstream them, particularly by familiarizing more developing country banks with these new techniques. There is a significant opportunity to unlock the agricultural sector’s growth potential through improved agricultural finance. Therefore, the paper highlights the need for the international community to fund related projects.

Innovations outlined in this paper include warehouse receipt finance, collateral managers, structuring finance around farmers' purchases and sales, establishing agri-service centres, agricultural credit cards, weather and commodity price risk management tools. The paper concludes with recommendations for policy-makers, international financing organisations and banks to encourage the development of more innovative agricultural financing schemes.

This paper was presented to an Expert Meeting on Financing Commodity Based Trade and Development in Geneva.

unctad paper  -  English (en)

Agricultural Finance in Uganda: The Way Forward Paper 2004

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The overall objective of this study is to highlight the major bottlenecks in the development of self-sustainable agricultural finance in Uganda and to set out a medium term strategy for the support of this sector. By way of backdrop, the analysis and recommendations of this paper are formed around the question "How will Ugandan agriculture change over the long term and how will these changes influence the demand for financial services?".

The report begins by describing the evolution of macroeconomic and financial policies and how this evolution has affected the structure and performance of the financial system and its ability to serve the agricultural and rural sectors. It follows this with an analysis of the demand conditions for financial services that will emerge as Uganda’s economy undergoes structural transformation over the next 20 years. An analysis of the structure of Uganda’s current financial system, its products, and the segments of the agricultural and rural economy it serves, is also undertaken. Alongside this the report analyses the constraints that are likely to impede the financial system’s ability to meet the demands that are expected to emerge and recommendations for improvements.

The final section attempts to pull these arguments together and forms a series of key recommendations, most of which are directed towards policy makers across a range of ministries and institutions. These recommendations are based around three main clusters:

  • Cluster One: Long-term strategic plan for financial services to the agricultural sector and related issues;
  • Cluster Two: Issues for attention by legislators, government ministries and BoU;
  • Cluster Three: Unfinished business.

The annexes to this report also provide further useful details on some of the key areas of the report - SACCOs, a note on the use of land as collateral for agricultural lending in Uganda, information management, and insurance as a financial service.

Auteur Meyer, R.; Roberts, R.; Mugume, A.
Éditeur GTZ, SIDA
Nombre de pages 82 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Uganda
Mots-clés Financial Services, Agricultural Finance
Ressources connexes
The financing of family farming in the context of liberalisation: A case study in West Africa Case Study 2002

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

This article is aimed at shedding light on the question using the case of francophone West Africa. The data and analyses presented are drawn from different studies performed on the subject by CIRAD in partnership with microfinance operators in the north (CERISE Group, FERT) and the south since 1997. The present characteristics of the contribution of MFIs to the financing of agriculture in West Africa are presented in the first part of the article.

The second part consists to analyse, on the basis of observation and statements by MFIs and agricultural stakeholders in West Africa, the blocking factors that limit the contribution of microfinance to agriculture and identify the pathways and technical, financial and institutional innovations that could lift these constraints.

Finally, the author concludes that microfinance can improves its contribution to agriculture by means of long, in-depth work on the consolidation of the two sectors, the adaptation of services and products, making credit secure by means of technical and institutional innovations and strengthening links of mutual knowledge and trust. However, it seems obvious that the road to be followed to achieve the full meeting of the amplitude and diversity in agriculture is a long one.

Agricultural Lending Practices: Kyrgyz Agricultural Finance Corporation (KAFC) Case Study 2002

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The Kyrgyz Republic has 12 years of independent statehood, 9 years of reforms. The process of reform, transition to market economy showed that it is not easy to find the right way of developing. KAFC is one of the successful stories in our country, but before that the country made mistakes with agriculture lending programs. Kyrgyz experience demonstrates to other countries that creation and developing of viable and sustainable financial institution is very possible, if the efforts of local authorities and donors will come together and compliment each other.

Auteur Baktygul Jeenbaeva
Éditeur Kyrgyz Agricultural Finance Corporation (KAFC)
Nombre de pages 16 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Rural Lending, Financial Services
Ressources connexes
What modes of intervention can strengthen the contribution of microfinance to the financing of agriculture? Case Study 2002

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Although the fields of intervention of aid for development have changed considerably over the past 15 years, support for agricultural development remains a major investment for most donors. Agricultural modernisation issues are still important: the covering of food requirements in the southern countries, foreign currency earnings by export crops, participation in the economic development of rural zones, contribution to reducing rural exodus, etc. However, the financing of agriculture remains a strong constraint in the modernisation process. The institutional innovations in decentralised financial services or 'microfinance' during the past 15 years have only partially removed the constraint. By dismantling the remaining public agricultural financing systems, liberalisation is giving the question of financing renewed acuteness.

This paper was presented at an international workshop in Dakar, Senegal, in January 2002. It is concerned with the role that donors can play in facilitating the supply of sustainable financial services suited to the needs of agriculture. The first part consists of a brief historical reminder of how interventions in rural financial services have changed in the years since countries gained their independence. The second part is an analysis of the main modes of intervention currently used by donors in West Africa with regard to their effect on the financing of agricultural activities. They noted:

  • The continued support for agricultural banks and their importance in financing integrated product chains.
  • Agricultural or integrated development projects with credit components still exist.
  • The creation of microfinance institutions became a favourite instrument in the 1980s.
  • Towards the end of the 1990s, intervention was concentrated on the attainment of financial autonomy and refocused on support for the existing financial systems. Considerable efforts were devoted to structuring the microfinance sector.
  • Donor support for the agricultural sector was not connected with microfinance support actions.

The researchers concluded that the evolution of intervention modes in microfinance and the priority accorded to the financial consolidation of institutions have led to separation from the problems of the financing of agricultural activities. The microfinance and agriculture sectors are now strongly compartmentalised and scope for inter-sectoral dialogue is reduced both at the local level (little dialogue between MFIs and farmers' organisations in the field) and at the national level (no consultation between professional institutions).

To effect improvement they recommended that donors should continue to support the development of microfinance and promote its diversity; renew their efforts in innovation to create appropriate intermediation models; improve their tools and procedures for guaranteeing loans; enhance meetings and dialogue between the agricultural and microfinance sectors and promote financing tools that are better adapted to the constraints of microfinance and the requirements of agriculture, e.g. long duration tools (10-12 year programmes) with no interruption and with regular evaluation procedures to enable readjustment and adaptation to the rate of evolution of populations.

Financiamiento de la Agricultura Document 2000

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

Este documento de trabajo fue presentado como documento base para la conferencia electrónica ‘Repensar el Financiamiento Rural’, organizada por el grupo Chorlavi en marzo del 2001, y corresponde a la Parte 332 del Manual del Agrónomo. El documento parte de la premisa que para satisfacer la demanda rural por servicios financieros es necesaria la creación o consolidación de instituciones financieras específicas. De acuerdo a los autores, una demanda como la rural, con características estructurales y permanentes, sólo puede ser atendida con soluciones de largo plazo antes que soluciones de corto plazo como los proyectos.

A lo largo de este documento se describen brevemente y también se analizan diferentes temas concernientes a la problemática de las instituciones financieras que proveen financiamiento al sector agrícola. El documento se inicia con un análisis breve tanto de la problemática como de los principios y la metodología que dichas instituciones emplean. Enmarcado dentro del análisis de la problemática general, posteriormente se discuten los términos de viabilidad de las instituciones, a través de sus tres dimensiones, la financiera, la institucional y la social.

En la segunda parte del documento, se discuten las características que hacen que crédito rural sea tan ‘específico’. Se entiende que las necesidades de crédito rural dependen de una serie de situaciones específicas que dependen de cada contexto en donde se desarrollen las unidades económicas (agro sistemas u otros tipos de sistemas de producción), por lo tanto requieren soluciones específicas para cada caso, y la existencia de instituciones que guarden relación a las condiciones presentadas por sus contextos.

Por otro lado, dada la ‘fungibilidad’ de los capitales financieros dentro de las familias rurales y su compleja administración, donde los ingresos pueden provenir de diversas fuentes y donde los destinos de los gastos y las inversiones son igual de diversos, es difícil poder orientar el destino del crédito hacia ciertos objetos determinados. Por lo tanto al hablar de crédito rural es necesario hablar de crédito ‘abierto’, de ‘libre disponibilidad y sin asignación predeterminada, donde los montos son determinados en función a la capacidad de endeudamiento de la unidad económica’.

El documento posteriormente describe los diferentes tipos de crédito en las unidades campesinas, los cuales se ilustran con estudios de caso de instituciones financieras de África. Entre ellos se describen los siguientes tipos:

  • Financiamiento de tesorería, cuando el crédito se usa para cubrir el déficit de tesorería, fruto del carácter estacional de la actividad agrícola.
  • Financiamiento para el equipamiento de la explotación y las inversiones a mediano y largo plazo.
  • Financiamiento para la adquisición de parcelas de producción.

Posteriormente se discuten los riesgos y seguridad del crédito rural. Se señala la dificultad de controlar las cuentas por pagar, la adecuación de los sistemas de crédito a los contextos específicos y el uso de diversas formas de garantías (moral, social, material),asi como el uso de fondos de garantía. Asimismo, se mencionan los riesgos familiares, la importancia del ahorro y las organizaciones mutualistas de apoyo. Posteriormente se señalan los riesgos climáticos, las epidemias y la utilidad de los seguros de cosechas. Finalmente, los riesgos económicos y aquellos relacionados con la seguridad del ambiente económico-técnico de los agricultores.

El documento concluye con dos interrogantes, respecto al rol de los intermediarios financieros, el reto de ampliar su campo de acción y asegurar su viabilidad; y de qué manera las condiciones generales de la actividad agrícola contribuyen a reforzar la viabilidad de las instituciones financieras, especialmente en los países en desarrollo.

Auteur Francois Doligez, Dominique Gentil
Éditeur IRAM
Nombre de pages 17 pp.
Langue principale Spanish (es)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Credit, Rural Credit, Financial Institutions
Ressources connexes
Better practices in agricultural lending Book 1999

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Cette ressource apparaît dans: Le financement agricole

The objective of this study is to identify unique features of the agricultural sector and the rural economy that present challenges for expanding the frontier of formal finance, how these affect the provision of sustainable financial services and the key elements of a strategy for successful agricultural lending. Although no simple blueprint exists for successful rural financial institutions serving agriculture, some recent interesting experiences derived from case studies and the new microfinance developments suggest "better practices" that are presented as part of the strategy.

Key elements of the strategy concern cost reduction and risk management. Suggestions include:

  • using a decentralised operational structure and mobile branches or officers;
  • recruiting staff with a solid background in agriculture and the rural economy and providing adequate training and incentives;
  • simplify lending procedures and appraise loans by collaborating with local organisations and networks;
  • reduce agricultural credit risks by adequate asset and loan portfolio diversification;
  • individualise agricultural loan products and loan repayment modalities in accordance with the loan repayment capacity and borrowing performance of clients;
  • install an effective management information system.
Auteur Klein, B.; Meyer, R.; Hannig, A.; Burnett, J.; Fiebig, M.
Éditeur FAO / GTZ
Nombre de pages 81 pp.
Langue principale English (en)
Région / Pays Global
Mots-clés Agricultural Lending, Agricultural Credit, Cost Reduction, Risk Management
Ressources connexes

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