Aplicaciones de las TIC

Library Resources

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Growing Digital Financial Inclusion in Zambia Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Inclusive finance

In 2014, Mastercard Foundation and UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) formed a partnership to try to replicate and scale a model that had found success in the Pacific region – taking a market development approach to increasing digital financial inclusion. Through the partnership, UNCDF was able to expand the Mobile Money for the Poor programme (MM4P) and test frameworks created in the Pacific in markets that were not yet “on the map”.

The Mastercard Foundation and UNCDF chose to work in three countries in West and Southern Africa – Benin, Senegal, and Zambia – all with very low digital financial services (DFS) usage rates.
The numbers tell a story of great success: Benin has seen DFS usage rates increase from 2% to 40%, Senegal from 13% to 29%, and Zambia from 4% to 44%. But lift under the “hood” of the numbers and you will see the lives of millions of people who are now financially included that weren’t five years ago.

In Zambia Elase was trapped in the cash economy with little options to save and transfer money safely. As she started using mobile money, she began to save in order to establish an agent booth. Today, she is a thriving mobile money agent managing four booths and several tellers. She was able to grow her business after receiving a non-collateral loan from FINCA, a project partner of the programme. She is growing as an entrepreneur and feels empowered in her professional and personal life, providing business advice to her clients and contributing to her household needs.
You may find out more about Elase`s story, our work and approach on the market as well as the lessons we have learned in our report “Growing digital financial inclusion in Zambia”.

Cyber Security in Financial Sector Development: Challenges and Potential Solutions for Financial Inclusion Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Financial sector linkages, Inclusive finance

This paper assesses the relevance of cyber security for the development of inclusive financial systems in developing countries. The growing use of digital financial services and shared service platforms has increased the financial sector’s exposure to cyber risks. Financial service providers and their customers, regulators and supervisors are challenged with the increase in cyber threats – especially in emerging and developing countries with lower capacities and less resources.

The paper shares trends, challenges and examples of governments, industry initiatives and public-private partnerships that are taking steps towards addressing capacity and resource gaps in the sector. Based on the analysis and lessons drawn from existing examples, the authors provide suggestions for further research and experimentation aimed at identifying effective approaches for improving the sector’s resilience to and preparedness for cyber incidents.

Autor Silvia Baur-Yazbeck, Judith Frickenstein and David Medine
Editor CGAP Background Documents
Número de Páginas 15 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave cyber security, Financial Sector, Financial Inclusion
Recursos Relacionados
Deposit Insurance Treatment of E-Money Brief 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Collateral regulation, Prudential regulation

The expansion of digital financial accounts among poor customers has raised the question of whether e-money should be covered by deposit insurance and if so, how. This Technical Note examines the options while arguing that deposit insurance should not be the first line of defense, for two primary reasons. In many emerging markets where authorities have limited resources, their first area of focus should be on strong prudential regulation and supervision to ensure safe and sound institutions. Second, electronic money issuers are engaged in a narrow set of activities and in most cases pose limited or no systemic risk, compared with financial institutions that intermediate deposits and issue credit.

Autor Juan Carlos Izaguirre, Denise Dias, Mehmet Kerse
Editor CGAP
Número de Páginas 24 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Deposit Insurance, e-money, Regulation
Recursos Relacionados
Taxing Mobile Phone Transactions in Africa: Lessons From Kenya Report 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Technology and outreach

The taxation on mobile phone-based transactions and on airtime has been introduced in Kenya and is spreading to other African countries. Some countries in sub-Saharan Africa view mobile phones as a booming sub-sector easy to tax due to the increasing turnover of transactions and the formal nature of such transactions by both formal and informal enterprises. The increasing tax burden on the sub-sector and the consumers, though, has raised concerns that the massive gains made in financial inclusion in developing countries made possible by retail electronic payments platform via mobile phone transactions may be reversed—resulting in a return to cash transactions.

This paper shows that taxation on mobile phone airtime and financial transactions may not expand the tax base significantly but, rather, may reverse the gains on retail electronic payments and financial inclusion. A higher tax rate on low-level retail electronic transactions mostly levied on low-income earners that are sensitive to transaction costs may discourage the use of mobile phone-based transactions, incentivizing them to revert to cash transactions to evade taxes and so less tax revenue. This trend will deal a big blow to the financial inclusion success witnessed so far.

The data so far available shows that the contribution of mobile money-related taxes is less than one percent of total tax revenue, a negligible contribution to Kenya’s total tax income, at high economic costs. These lessons are not just relevant for Kenya but also for other countries in Africa with such tax propositions. Introducing and increasing taxes on mobile phone transactions may risk stalling progress on digitization and fiscal policy design as well as revenue administration.

Autor Njuguna Ndung’u
Editor The Brookings Institution
Número de Páginas 14 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Africa
Kenya
Palabras clave taxation, digital financial services, mobile money, mobile transactions
Recursos Relacionados
The Fintech Landscape in Rwanda Document 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Technology and outreach

The UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) is partnering with the National Bank of Rwanda (BNR) and the fintech community to provide technical assistance to support innovative approaches for the regulation of the blossoming fintech ecosystem in Rwanda.

Information on fintech start-ups in Rwanda is scattered, and a mapping exercise of ecosystem players is yet to be completed. Addressing those gaps, UNCDF conducted a landscape analysis to (1) develop a centralized repository of information regarding fintech start-ups operating in Rwanda, (2) assess their capacity and needs and (3) identify appropriate areas for collaboration among UNCDF team members, regulatory bodies and fintech start-ups to promote innovation in Rwanda.

The UNCDF team completed the landscape analysis through a combination of desk research and semistructured interviews with fintech start-ups, ecosystem facilitators, policymakers and regulators. The team reviewed policy documents, regulations and frameworks guiding the development of the financial sector, the digital transformation and the innovation agendas as well.

Information gathered during the research and received from various stakeholders indicated that 44 fintech start-ups are currently operating in Rwanda. Since the fintech landscape in Rwanda is evolving, this number is subject to change as more information on companies that are not active members of various associations in the industry becomes available.

The UNCDF team leveraged the Ernst & Young fintech ecosystem framework,1 evaluating the current and projected trends in four core ecosystem attributes: (1) availability of talent, (2) demand for products and services, (3) availability of capital for start-ups and innovators, and (4) government policies and regulations regarding innovation. 

Nonbank E-Money Issuers vs. Payments Banks: How Do They Compare? Technical Note 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Remittances and payments

A key regulatory enabler for building inclusive digital financial services is creating a special licensing window for electronic money issuers (EMIs). Because EMIs have a lower risk profile than banks, they require less regulatory oversight. A special licensing category that recognizes that their role is to store customer funds converted into e-money held in basic transaction accounts, not to extend credit based on such funds, can open the DFS market to new providers. While many countries have created nonbank e-money licenses to cater for this business, at least three countries have introduced a special banking licensing category – the payments bank license. This technical note analyzes the country context in which the payments banks licenses were crafted, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the EMI license versus the payments bank license.

Autor Denise Dias and Stefan Staschen
Editor Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP)
Número de Páginas 20 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Supervision, Regulation, e-money, digital money
Recursos Relacionados
Global Microscope 2019: The Enabling Environment for Financial Inclusion Report 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Financial management

The Global Microscope assesses the enabling environment for financial inclusion across 5 categories and 55 countries. In this 2019 edition, the EIU examines how countries are promoting financial inclusion for both women and men, 11 new gender-focused indicators have been added to the framework. The Microscope was originally developed for countries in the Latin American and Caribbean regions in 2007 and was expanded into a global study in 2009. Most of the research for this report, which included interviews and desk analysis, was conducted between June and September 2019. This work was supported by funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion, IDB Invest and IDB LAB.

Autor Mike Kenny, Emma Ruckley, William Shallcross, Nick Wolf
Editor The Economist Intelligence Unit
Número de Páginas 110 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Financial Inclusion, enabling environment, Consumer Protection, Policy, Regulation and Government Initiatives
Recursos Relacionados
Enabling Policy and Regulation: Leaving No One Behind in the Digital Era Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Rural Financial Services: General, Inclusive finance

As technology and information rapidly force the evolution of global and local markets, we must act quickly to support policymakers and regulators to adapt to a swiftly advancing future full of opportunity and uncertainty.

An interconnected digital economy requires an agile, well-informed approach to risk management. For example, as new and old customers use digital channels from multiple and diverse providers, protecting customer data has become a policy focus area. Complementarily, as more people use formal financial accounts and expect their money to be accessible on demand, protecting funds will continue to be a priority issue. Rapid economic development will be driven by increasing customer trust. In a competitive environment that evolves rapidly, engendering customer trust is a constant process, and governments represent one of the few actors at the national level to which customers can look for protection from abuse and endorsement of reliable systems.

Did You See My Tweet? Monitoring Financial Consumer Protection via Social Media Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Technology and outreach

Social media is changing customer service by shifting the ways in which consumers seek resolution of problems and the channels that firms make available to consumers. The ability for consumers to directly, instantly, and publicly praise or chastise the service of a firm has led to increased accountability and new ways to remotely resolve customer issues swiftly.

In Kenya, the "#KOT" or "Kenyans on Twitter" community has become an important channel for public discourse on a wide range of topics. This includes financial services. In Kenya financial consumer protection via channels such as government authorities is still very limited, and cases of mistreatment of financial customers are commonly reported in the Kenyan media, often with no resolution for the consumers.

This frustration has led some to turn to social media to both attempt to resolve their problems and publicly call out consumer protection abuses. Through this active Twitter population, a clearer view is emerging of the extent and type of problems that occur with financial services and how providers and government agencies do—or do not—respond.

Autor Rafe Mazer; Dan Onchieku
Editor Financial Sector Deepening Trust Kenya (FSDK)
Número de Páginas 26 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Africa
Kenya
Palabras clave Social Media, Consumer Protection; Financial Inclusion
Recursos Relacionados
Growing Digital Financial Inclusion in Benin Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Inclusive finance

In 2014, Mastercard Foundation and UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) partnered to try to replicate and scale a model that had found success in the Pacific region – taking a market development approach to increase digital financial inclusion. Through the partnership, UNCDF was able to expand the Mobile Money for the Poor programme (MM4P) and test frameworks created in the Pacific in markets that were not yet “on the map”.

The Mastercard Foundation and UNCDF chose to work in three countries in West and Southern Africa – Benin, Senegal, and Zambia – all with very low digital financial services (DFS) usage rates.

The numbers tell a story of great success: Benin has seen DFS usage rates increase from 2% to 40%, Senegal from 13% to 29%, and Zambia from 4% to 44%. But lift under the “hood” of the numbers and you will see the lives of millions of people who are now financially included that weren’t five years ago.

Pierrette in Benin tells a story of how digital finance can be a game changer for small entrepreneurs. “My business tripled” she says as she saved time and money by using her phone to place orders via WhatsApp, pay with her MTN mobile money account her suppliers in northern Benin, and repay her loan with ALIDé. She invested the money she saved into her business, which is now flourishing in front of her home in Cotonou and will soon expand to a new warehouse in Hévier, west of the capital city.

You may find out more about Pierrette`s story, our work and approach on the market as well as the lessons that we have learned in our report “Growing digital financial inclusion in Benin”.

Competition and Digital Financial Services 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Rural Financial Services, Rural Financial Services: General

These working papers investigate competition issues in digital financial services (DFS), providing both a survey of the main issues at each step of the DFS value chain as well as going in depth on topics such as digital data and credit card interchange fees. Drawing on both experience and research, these papers provide regulators and stakeholders alike a solid framework for understanding how competition policy, regulation and behaviour by market players can effect the level playing field of DFS in emerging markets.

Autor Ariadne Plaitakis and Matthew Soursourian
Editor CGAP Background Documents
Número de Páginas 128 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave digital financial services, Competition, value chain, digital data, Regulators, competition policy, market players
Recursos Relacionados
Digital Financial Services Measurement Framework Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Rural Financial Services: General, Remittances and payments

A range of indicators are used to measure the digital financial services and payment landscapes. This measurement framework is created to characterize various measurable components of the digital payments ecosystem that could be tracked over time. It incorporates access, adoption and usage indicators, distinguishing between receiving payments and making payments. It considers drivers that influence the adoption and usage of digital payment solutions. 

This framework will enable practitioners to identify new digital payment indicators and to structure existing ones.

Autor Claire Hayworth, Chris Colli & Illana Melzer
Editor Insight to Impact (i2i)
Número de Páginas 43 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave digital financial services, Remittances and Payments
Recursos Relacionados
Digitalization for Agricultural Value Chains in China and India: practical examples of software platform-based solutions for smallholder producers Report 2019 English (en)

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Value chain development

The Rural Finance Best Practices Project (RuFBeP) by the Asia-Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (APRACA) and IFAD have released a publication on how information and communication technology (ITC) networks in China and India make the agricultural value chain significantly more efficient. 

The study presents the following cases:

1. Nixn, the leading high-tech agricultural enterprise in China; through its subsidiary company, Nxin Internet Technology Co., Ltd., it offers a suite of software solutions that links multiple players in the agricultural value chains. The Nxin Mall platform is an online store that gives farmers increased access to agricultural input suppliers and offers transparency of pricing as well as built in safeguards to help prevent price gouging.

2. E-Commerce Platform-Driven Agricultural Value Chain Finance: The initiatives of Ant Financial in China; Ant Financial provides integrated software platforms using cloud-based services and a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model;

3. SourceTrace, a new generation social enterprise that leverages the strength of ICT to fuel the growth in agriculture of the Green Revolution based on eService Everywhere (ESE™) that uses the SaaS model and cloud-based networking;

4. National Collateral Management Services (NCMS) Ltd., India’s leading post-harvest management organization, providing technology-enabled warehousing and supply chain solutions.

APRACA  -  English (en)

Autor Prasun Kumar Das Michael Hamp
Editor APRACA under the auspices of the IFAD grant supported ‘RuFBeP’ project
Número de Páginas 92 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Asia
Palabras clave Digitalization, Ict, Agriculture, Value Chains, smallholder producers
Recursos Relacionados
Credit to Merchants: Tienda Pago's Digital Solution for Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Case Study 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC

This case study aims to extrapolate some preliminary lessons from Tienda Pago’s model, including its challenges and potential for scale. The study is informed by distributor and customer interviews and qualitative research, which sought to map characteristics of merchant clients and analyze both drivers and barriers to product usage and uptake.

Autor Martha Casanova
Editor International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Número de Páginas 32 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave digital financial services, Financial Inclusion
Recursos Relacionados
Growing Digital Financial Inclusion in Senegal Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Inclusive finance

In 2014, Mastercard Foundation and UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) partenered to try to replicate and scale a model that had found success in the Pacific region – taking a market development approach to increase digital financial inclusion. Through this partnership, UNCDF was able to expand the Mobile Money for the Poor programme (MM4P) and test frameworks created in the Pacific in markets that were not yet “on the map”.

The Mastercard Foundation and UNCDF chose to work in three countries in West and Southern Africa – Benin, Senegal, and Zambia – all with very low digital financial services (DFS) usage rates.

The numbers tell a story of great success: Benin has seen DFS usage rates increase from 2% to 40%, Senegal from 13% to 29%, and Zambia from 4% to 44%. But lift under the “hood” of the numbers and you will see the lives of millions of people who are now financially included that weren’t five years ago.

Back in 2015, Birane was 19 and struggling to find work in his village on the outskirts of Nioro Du Rip in Senegal. Today, he is a young and well-established roving mobile money agent servicing rural villagers with the Intouch app. His diligence in handling other people’s money soon earned him the trust of villagers and allowed him to grow his customer base to a level that allows him to support himself and save for other activities in farming.

You may find out more about Birane`s story, our work and approach on the market as well as the lessons we have learned in our report “Growing digital financial inclusion in Senegal”.

Harnessing the Power of Mobile Money to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Rural Financial Services, Rural Financial Services: General

Exploring ways in which mobile money contributes to the digitalization of finance

Over the last decade, mobile money has been disrupting traditional financial services and transforming the lives of hundreds of millions of people across developing countries. Today, with over $1.3 billion a day processed by over 866 million registered accounts in 90 countries, mobile money has evolved into a broader payments platform that provides access to life-enhancing services, such as healthcare, education, employment, transportation and social protection. As national economies become increasingly dependent on digital technology, the power of mobile money to harness digital finance for sustainable development is strengthening.

This report brings together existing evidence to explore the ways in which mobile money is contributing to the digitalization of finance to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The insights presented here illustrate the potential of mobile money to help achieve the 2030 targets by driving sustainable and inclusive growth, and providing solutions to some of the world’s most intractable development challenges.

Autor Mariana Lopez, Senior Advocacy Manager, Mobile Money (GSMA)
Editor GSMA
Número de Páginas 31 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Financial Inclusion; Digital financial services
Recursos Relacionados
State of the Digital Financial Services Market in Zambia, 2018 Document 2019 English (en)

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Rural Financial Services: General

For Zambia’s digital financial services industry, 2018 saw growth in the number of active DFS account users, growth in the number of agents nationwide and growth in the number of products available to customers. These indicators of growth in the industry are findings in the Annual Provider Survey (APS), which UNCDF has conducted for over three years, and which UNCDF and Bank of Zambia compiled into the State of the Zambia DFS Industry 2018 Report.

Our 2018 Report revealed that 18 DFS providers operated in Zambia, the same as the previous year, and though no new products were launched in the year, the majority of providers considered DFS a commercially sustainable side of their business. This year, 85% of providers continuously increased investment in their technical and organisational capacity, and providers dedicated more than 72% of their DFS staff to agent network management, further illustrating how meaningful these services are to providers. The number of active agents in Zambia’s DFS ecosystem has seen an increase of 104% from 2017. 

State of the Digital Financial Services Market in Zambia, 2017  -  English (en)

Autor Nandini Harihareswara
Editor UN Capital Development Fund
Número de Páginas 32 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave digital finance, mobile money
Recursos Relacionados
The Digital Lives of Refugees: How Displaced Populations Use Mobile Phones and What Gets in the Way 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Technology and outreach

Mobile money is available in 90 countries across the globe, including three-quarters of low- and lower-middle-income countries, making it the leading payment platform for a digital economy in emerging markets. For refugees, the vast majority of whom reside in the developing world (84 percent), mobile money offers a lifeline to better financial management. This is particularly true in harder to reach locations, where the prevalence of other financial services is often lower.

This report digs deeper into findings and recommendations across five thematic areas – one of which is mobile financial services – in three contexts: urban settings in Jordan, Kiziba camp in Rwanda and Bidi Bidi settlement in Uganda. Due to the low use of mobile money in Jordan – only one percent of refugees surveyed reported using mobile money – this portion of the research therefore focuses primarily on Kiziba camp and Bidi Bidi settlement.

Autor Jenny Casswell
Editor GSMA
Número de Páginas 47 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Africa
Jordan, Rwanda, Uganda
Palabras clave digital financial services, Disasters and Conflict, mobile money, Refugees
Recursos Relacionados
Is Data Privacy Good for Business? Technical Note 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Business Support, Business Support Services: General, Agribusiness and enterprise support, Business planning, Aplicaciones de las TIC

As digital financial services grow rapidly, so do concerns over data privacy and protection especially for poor customers who are particularly vulnerable to abuses and injury from lax data policies. CGAP set out to test how much poor people value their data privacy and whether there was a business case for financial services providers to offer better data protection. The results from six experiments in Kenya and India make the case that customers will choose products with data policy and protection features built in, and they are willing to pay for them. This opens an avenue for voluntary self-regulation in markets that do not have strong consumer protection and data policies in place.

Autor Maria Fernandez Vidal and David Medine
Editor Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP)
Número de Páginas 12 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Customers, Donors and Investors, Business and markets, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya, India
Recursos Relacionados
Digital Financial Services in Nigeria: State of the Market Report 2019 Paper 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Business Support Services: General, Aplicaciones de las TIC, Rural Financial Services

In-depth exploration of consumer profiles, the gender gap, and a review of DFS policy landscape.

The 2019 Digital Financial Services in Nigeria State of Market Report is the fourth in the series and presents consumer and gender profiles with more contextual relevance and linkages. It contains key insights from analysis of disaggregated data on banked, under-banked and unbanked adult Nigerians and also the widening gender gap. 

There is also a high-level review of the progress of market-enabling policy recommendations made in 2017. The section explores how much progress has been made so far, which recommendations have been implemented and which ones are outstanding. 

Autor Olanrewaju Adelaja, Olubanjo Adetunji, Olawale Ajai, Timothy Aluko, Olayinka David-West, Nkemdilim Iheanachor, Emmanuel Ogbu, Omotayo Muritala, Ijeoma Nwagwu, Ibukun Taiwo, Samuel Umoh & Immanuel Umukoro
Editor Sustainable and Inclusive Digital Financial Services (SIDFS)
Número de Páginas 107 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global, Africa
Nigeria
Palabras clave digital financial services, Market Assessments, Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria
Recursos Relacionados
Making Digital Credit Truly Responsible Presentation 2019

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Technology and outreach

Digital credit has emerged as a new and profitable service offering that has a great potential to increase financial inclusion. Yet, if it is not carefully managed, digital credit runs a great risk to exclude, over-charge, and create over-indebtedness.

During the first half of 2019, The Smart Campaign and the Social Performance Task Force (SPTF) commissioned Microsave Consulting (MSC) to study the current state of digital credit in Kenya and formulated recommendations for how to make digital credit delivery safer and more customer-centric. We propose that regulations be put in place such that delinquencies and defaults among loans below some fixed amount not be reported to the credit bureau so as not to unduly burden consumers. We also call for increased public awareness campaigns about how credit bureaus work and the consequences of default so consumers will better understand the risks involved in borrowing.

Editor Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion; SPTF, Agence Francaise de Developpement, MSC
Número de Páginas 105 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Consumer Protection, Credit Provision, Customer Centricity, Nano Loans, Interest Rates, digital financial services
Recursos Relacionados
Digital Transformation of Microfinance and Digitization of Microfinance Services to Deepen Financial Inclusion in Africa Report 2018

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Microfinance institutions, Inclusive finance

Digital financial services (DFS) are spearheading greater financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa, with 338 million registered accounts in 2017 and a significant boost in penetration from 12 percent to 21 percent between 2014 and 2017. Over the past decade of market development, DFS has diversified from basic money transfer and bill payments to credit, cross-border remittances, savings, insurance, merchant payments, bulk disbursements and other value-added services like pay-as-you-go (PAYG) energy, crowdfunding, savings group and value chain digitization. Digital credit offers are growing rapidly in mature DFS markets in Africa, such as Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and parts of West Africa. Digitization of services is no longer an option, but a race MFIs must run to stay relevant in rapidly evolving markets.

Microfinance providers are taking progressive steps to embrace digital finance, often starting with the digitization of existing products, services and operations, either by using mobile devices, partnering with a digital financial service provider or developing a proprietary agency network. Although this triggers benefits for both clients (convenience, security, faster transactions and creation of a digital footprint) and microfinance providers (increased operational efficiency, diversification of customer base with value-added products, rural outreach at a lower cost), digital finance comes with certain challenges and risks, and can sometimes represent a threat if not leveraged appropriately.

Microfinance providers have to compete with other DFS players by serving millions of traditionally un(der)served populations. Despite the progress in expanding the reach of DFS, many Africans, especially vulnerable segments like rural residents, women and the very poor remain unserved. Microfinance has traditionally focused on serving these groups and have developed methodologies for building relationships with vulnerable clients. Given the scale and rapid rise of DFS and the rural/women focus of microfinance, partnerships offer great potential to deepen financial inclusion: between microfinance providers and mobile network operators (on digital savings and loans, mobile-to-wallet interoperability, etc.) or between microfinance providers and technical services specialists and FinTechs (credit scoring solutions, blockchains, etc.).

As technology disruptions and new players change the face of microfinance, regulators need to fully comprehend this changing environment and be prepared with adequate supervision and oversight tools. Inclusive digital finance is contingent on a broader disaggregation of the financial services value chain, with banks and non-banks (including FinTech companies) assuming different responsibilities according to their area of specialization, through a web of partnerships. This could include account and client data storage, management and analytics, and many more. Regulators need to identify how to optimize synergies between digital finance and microfinance for financial inclusion, such as consumer protection for DFS, KYC, credit risk management, data privacy, innovation, reporting, financial education and other areas.

Autor Vera Bersudskaya, Lisa Chassin, Denise Dias, Isabelle Musat and Aurelie Wildt Dagneaux
Editor African Financial Inclusion Policy Initiative
Número de Páginas 32 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave digital transformation, Microfinance, digitization, Microfinance Services, Financial Inclusion
Recursos Relacionados
Fintech, Inclusive Growth and Cyber Risks: A Focus on the MENAP and CCA Regions Document 2018

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC, Financial sector linkages, Risk management, Inclusive finance

Financial technology (fintech) is emerging as an innovative way to achieve financial inclusion and the broader objective of inclusive growth. In addition to improving the speed, convenience, and efficiency of financial services, fintech has potential to promote financial inclusion. More specifically, it can enhance access to affordable financial services for unbanked populations and underserved small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs); reduce delays and costs in cross-border remittances; foster efficiencies and transparency in government operations, which helps reduce corruption, and facilitate social and humanitarian transfers in a manner that preserves human dignity. 
For the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan (MENAP) and Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) regions, fintech has a particularly valuable role to play as these potential benefits are aligned with the regions’ policy priorities. Both regions have countries with large unbanked populations, SMEs whose growth is constrained by limited access to finance, high youth unemployment, large remittance markets and informal transfers (Hawala), undiversified economies, vulnerabilities to terrorism, large income disparities, large displaced populations, and endemic corruption. Fintech innovations and underlying technologies can contribute to the solutions for many of these challenges.

Autor Inutu Lukonga
Editor International Monetary Fund
Número de Páginas 51 pages
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Financial Stability & Governance, Banking Supervision and Regulation, Financial Inclusion, digital finance
Recursos Relacionados
Emerging Opportunities for the Application of Blockchain in the Agri-food Industry Paper 2018

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC

Distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) have the potential to transform the global food system by introducing important efficiency gains along value chains, and improving trust, transparency and traceability. While large actors are likely to make fast and significant inroads in exploiting DLTs, small farmers and processors also stand to reap significant benefits, provided the technology is made accessible to them. This raises the question of how an enabling environment can be created for smallholders to harness these new technologies, and, at a broader scale, for DLTs, so that these contribute to improving the functioning of global food and agricultural markets.

This paper, by Mischa Tripoli and Josef Schmidhuber, seeks to make an initial contribution to the emerging public debate on this issue by providing an overview of DLTs and their application in food and agriculture, examining public policy implications for food security and rural development and identifying some potential challenges, risks and the way forward.

Autor Mischa Tripoli Josef Schmidhuber
Editor Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
Número de Páginas 40 pp.
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Distributed ledger technologies
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Digital Financial Services in Rwanda: Leveraging technology for maximum use of financial services Technical Note 2017

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC

This dedicated FinScope Insight Note is aimed at highlighting the results of the ecosystem and usage of digital financial services in Rwanda. The FinScope Survey not only enabled the assessment of the landscape of financial access in Rwanda, but also provided a benchmark for repeat surveys that will enable the impact of access related policy interventions to be assessed. The survey was comprehensive in highlighting the prevalence and use of digital financial services (DFS).

Consumer Protection in Digital Credit Paper 2017 English (en)

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC

Digitally delivered credit is quickly expanding in emerging markets. “Digital credit” refers to credit products—including digital payments products such as mobile money—that are delivered fully via digital channels, such as mobile phones and the internet. These business models are driven by strong customer demand, lower operating costs, and the greater reach of the instant, automated, and remote lending methodology. The convenience and speed of digital credit are well matched to urgent and unanticipated needs, such as a late-night emergency visit to the hospital or working capital for the quick-turnover, high-margin economic activities common for microenterprises. Yet the very attributes of digital credit—instant, automated, and remote— create consumer protection risks that are distinct from those of more traditional consumer and microenterprise credit models. This paper explores new approaches to address risks and problems in five areas:

  • Disclosure of loan terms and conditions;
  • Marketing approaches to promote responsible borrowing;
  • Appropriate and tailored products to meet the needs of specific consumer segments;
  • Repayment and collections;
  • Credit reporting and information sharing.
Consumer Protection in Digital Credit  -  English (en)

Autor Mazer, R. and McKee, K.
Editor CGAP
Washington, D.C.
Número de Páginas 24 pp.
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave digital finance, Mobile Banking, Access To Finance
Recursos Relacionados
Impact of Agricultural Value Chains on Digital Liquidity Document 2016

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC

This report looks at agricultural value chains and whether they are a potential vehicle for increasing digital liquidity:

  • How much of the population do they reach?
  • How important are agriculture payments to the lives of the poor?
  • Would value chain eMoney tend to stay in electronic form?
Autor Jackson, T. H., Weinberg, A.
Editor International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Número de Páginas 28 pp.
Idioma Principal English (en)
Región / País Global
Palabras clave Agriculture, digital finance, Ict For Development, Ict
Recursos Relacionados
Savings Groups Digitization and Financial Linkages Curso de Formación English (en)

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Este recurso aparece en: Aplicaciones de las TIC

Savings Groups (SGs) are community-based financial institutions where members mobilize and manage their own savings, pooling this money in a loan fund from which they can borrow in amounts as small as $5. This approach has proved to be low-cost, highly sustainable, and extremely profitable for the member-owners while achieving significant scale, especially in remote rural areas. In Africa and Asia, it is estimated that SGs are now established in more than 75 countries worldwide, reaching more than 15 million members in over 750,000 groups.

However, SGs are becoming increasingly overcapitalized and require linkages to formal financial institutions and virtual wallets. This is now being accelerated through digital platforms developed in partnership with Financial Technology (FinTech) companies, Mobile Network Operators and Aggregators. The advent of agency banking in most countries introduces another opportunity into the linkages journey. This calls for a more strategic engagement with relevant stakeholders in terms of product development, delivery channels, digitizing operations and disseminating relevant knowledge in savings groups, financial technology, and financial linkages in order to better manage opportunities in these three sectors: digital financial services; savings groups and banking. This course is designed to achieve specific objectives and learning outcomes as below:

Learning Objectives:

  • Expose participants to the methodological approaches and training tools employed by the major implementing organizations in promoting savings groups.
  • Guide financial inclusion practitioners through a focused roadmap of technology-enabled business models at the bottom of the financial pyramid.
  • Introduce participants to the concept and framework of SG linkages from a demand-side and a supply-side perspective.
  • Introduce participants to concepts on the digitizing of SGs concepts.
  • Understand the opportunities that SGs present for accelerating sales at the bottom-of-the-pyramid as last-mile-marketing structures for social enterprise companies including mobile money uptake.
  • Appreciate the role of financial technology service providers in enhancing financial inclusion

Course Fees: $250

Registration Deadline: 04 October 2019

Course Information  -  English (en)

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